Jason Mankey of the Pan Patheos Newsletter has written that Chaucer was the first to mention Valentines Day. I have heard somewhere too that this Saint had something to do with helping lovers, though otherwise the reason for the Saint in association with Venus, Cupid and the arrow through the heart is lost in the mists.
There were two Valentines allegedly martyred on February 14, but none of their stories originally included any tales of love, and they also weren’t written down for centuries. Like many “saints” of that era they could be entirely fictitious or perhaps simply martyrs who were turned into legend. We have no way of knowing for sure. There were also several other Valentines (perhaps as many as 30!) not related to the person (or persons) whose feast day was celebrated on February 14. Don’t take my word for it here either, we know so little about Saint Valentine that the Catholic Church “discontinued liturgical veneration of him in 1969.”
The first reference to Valentine’s Day comes from Geoffrey Chaucer (and yes, that Chaucer). When we think of Chaucer today we generally think of his Canterbury Tales but during his lifetime he was widely known as a love poet, with one of those odes to love being especially important in the development of Valentine’s Day. Written sometime between 1370-1380 Geoffrey Chaucer’s The Parliament of Fowls is a poem dedicated to courtly love in the fullness of Spring. It also has the first mention of Valentine’s Day:
And in a clearing on a hill of flowers
Was set this noble goddess, Nature;
Of branches were her halls and her bowers
Wrought according to her art and measure;
Nor was there any fowl she does engender
That was not seen there in her presence,
To hear her judgement, and give audience.
For this was on Saint Valentine’s day,
When every fowl comes there his mate to take,
Of every species that men know, I say,
And then so huge a crowd did they make,
That earth and sea, and tree, and every lake
Was so full, that there was scarcely space
For me to stand, so full was all the place.
Chaucer’s creation of Valentine’s Day was also linked to the beauty of the Earth in early Spring, here personified as a goddess. So while the actual holiday probably can’t be linked with any ancient pagan custom, certainly the imagery invoked here by Chaucer is rather “pagan.” Chaucer’s use of “Valentine’s Day” occurs two more times in the poem, with another reference to the saint of the same name.
Here is a nice addition on the Saint and legend:
Saint Valentine: history and legend
- Religion Spirituality
Saint Valentine, Terni’s first Bishop, died in 273 on the orders of the Roman prefect Placidus Furius during the persecutions ordered by the emperor Aurelius.
The history and the legend
His life, given to the apostolate and enobled by his matyrdom, induced the citizens of Terni in 1644 to proclaim him the Patron Saint of the City and patron saint of lovers. But the fame which Saint Valentine all over the world is due to the legend which originated in the anglo-saxon countries, that he used to make the present of a flower from his own garden to his young visitors. Two of these young people fell in love; and this love risulted in a union so happy that many other couples followed their example, to such a point that the Saint was induced to dedicate one day of the year to a general benediction of the state of matrimony. The present Basilica was built in 1605 on the ruins of precedent temples, and contains works of art of a certain interest, in particular in the crypt.
Saint Valentine’s day tradition
Every year in the February month Terni celebrates Saint Valentine, the patron saint of town, with a series of cultural and religious meetings.