Marx Theoretical: Or, Marx In A Nutshell

   As said in our more practical blogs on Marxism as the left wing of Twentieth Century Totalitarianism, Marxism is no more an economic theory than Nazism or fascism is a biological theory. Both are reductionist, reducing all human things to a much lower, material basis. The theory is very simple, though the “economic” part is only one section. Long ago we collected the basic points of the theory, into these axioms  . We have a different understanding of things as an “intellectual” perversion, or an inversion of the imagination. But as was said, both forms of twentieth century totalitarianism begin in atheism. They then combine to this a strange historicism and an understanding of a necessary march of history, from Hegel, as though what is were not in the beginning. The reason can be described in  terms as a throwing of the baby out with the bathwater in rejecting the medieval assumptions.

   Marx is 1) an inversion of “religion, 2) an inversion of Hegel, 3) an economic determinism setting principles of Locke into historical or dialectical motion, and 4) A strange revolutionary conclusion, since, to be sarcastic, all history is class struggle, and this in the final opposition, that of the bourgeois and Proletariat.” But Marx taught us to see ourselves, our constitution in the broadest sense, as Capitalism,” an utter absurdity if one considers any of the greats of the American Revolution, let alone all of them.

   And for the many who are poor and the few who are rich, Aristotle notices that these are in every human polity. Or, as Jesus says, the poor you will always have with you…” But it is not at all clear, for example, that if there were no rich, simply everyone might be poor, no reason to assume some constant store of natures goods for equal distribution. If income inequality were to increase, it still might be true that the many are twice as rich and the rich four times, etc….

Within each of these four categories or axioms, there is an account with three or four points in each, so that as we say, Marx has only 12 or 16 thoughts.

   In the first, Marx considers the “criticism of religion” to have been completed by Hegel and Freurbach. Religion is now known to have been all along an illusion, an expression of human unhappiness with the world, and flowers on the chains of slavery or the opiate to keep the many pleased with their condition. The truth is that man is the supreme being for man. Knowing this, “religion” can now be resolved into its secular basis, its human core.

   In the second, Hegel was correct that history develops “dialectic-ally,” but was wrong, about the priority of “spirit” to mater. Hence the Marxist dialectic is dialectical materialsm as opposed to the Hegelian dialectic of spirit or “phenomenology of the mind.”The end of history is not in mind but in matter or economic realities, again simply assumed axiomatically to be so, as if by perception acquiring first principles. “Philosophy” is now to “become active, transforming the human material conditions, and here we say that Marxism is a spiritual atheism. Consequently, all history is the dialectical history of class struggle.

Third, All profit or value comes from human activity, or human labor in making or producing value out of the nearly worthless contribution of material nature. Therefore all “capitalist” profits come from the “exploitation” of labor. Marx does not want to hear about Henry Ford meta-making a system that makes the labor of each one more productive of value, nor about the difference in value of our labor in the project of some brainy guy, like labor for a craftsman, compared to the value of our labor in our own back yard, so that we leave home and go to work each morning, if we are able. It is all “exploitation.” Further, as technology increases, and the owners of the “factors” of production become larger, fewer workers are needed, so that an “industrial army of the unemployed” is formed necessarily. Again, Marx does not want to hear of labor unions formed to oppose the owners politically should their use their wealth to compel or tyrannize the workers, nor about the stock ownership that might cultivate a middle class. An impoverished proletariat is a revolutionary proletariat, and Marx just knows this is the last stage of a long history of class conflict.

   And here in the fourth section Marx becomes obviously spiritual, if in a materialistc sense, as ther is absolutely no empirical reason to think that because of factories in early eighteenth century London, the last stage of the historical dialectic is soon to arrive. But man, the supreme being for man, produces his own essence, which is then “alienated” when he does not himself own the factors of production, as he would, one imagines, if he chased down rabbits and devoured the for himself alone, without cooking. Indeed, since the present condition is, we just know it, the last and most essential class conflict,, the present condition is that of the alienation of the human essence, and hence the proletariat will embody the human essence, and the bourgeois the opposite. Here all ethics is subjected to class, as in fascism, all human ethics becomes a matter of race. But the seizure of the means of production is to be the “return of man to himself, and one of the few things said about the communist utopian condition is that the lack of division of labor allows man to contemplate his own essence in the products of his labor. One imagines that young fellow in the Catskill mountains who burned a hole in the center of a tree large enough to make a house, but Marx does not go this far, because the theory is a delusion, or an inversion of the things said about the coming of the kingdom, or the things imagined from the things said. He talks of each holding every sort of job randomly, which again might make any sensible person consider the value created by expertise and the division of labor.

   But for the sake of this delusion, or as said, perversion of the imagination, a “dictatorship of the proletariat” is to be instituted not by persuasion but by force, through a violence called spiritual, or philosophy become active, a tyranny for the purpose of transforming human nature by eradicating the character of the bourgeois. This condition is to universal, occurring everywhere, and involving a magical transformation of the senses. Private property and private families are to no longer exist, as in the Acts of the Apostles or among the few guardians in Socrates’ description of the best regime, though this has nothing to do with many. There is to be no tension between man and the state, nor between man and nature. Nature is to be conquered or subjected by the revolutionary proletariat. And until then , there is to be literally a tyranny with an aristocracy of those who know the march of history, a vanguard elite., in every communist nation. That is Marxism in a nutshell.

   Hence, as it would not be possible to present so concisely the thought of a genuine philosopher, we say that Marx is not a philosopher at all.

 

Legal Basis Page On #17-857 To Fix The Russia-Thrown Election

This is the Supreme Court case being obstructed by the Trumpsters and Russians

LEGAL BASIS

SCOTUS DOCKET #17-857:  In Re Larry Shane, et al.,Petitioners:    https://www.supremecourt.gov/search.aspx?filename=%2Fdocket%2FDocketFiles%2Fhtml%2FPublic%2F17-857.html

This is a nationwide U.S. Constitutional case of first impression. Only  the United States Supreme Court has nationwide jurisdiction to determine the propriety of last year’s Electoral College presidential vote.

The use of the writ of mandamus by that Court to protect the judicial process, including the power of, and to prosecute, is necessary to keep the current U.S. Attorney General and the U.S. President from interfering with, or terminating, the investigation and thereby obstructing justice.

Time is of the essence; one year has already elapsed.  Only the Supreme Court’s taking charge of, and accelerating the process , can bring about a result which affects the terms of those persons who taken have office on the basis of the last Electoral College vote. Empowering the Electoral College, establishing its procedures and conducting are-vote by that body are all time consuming. Only the Supreme Court can expedite the creation of new nationwide process within the Electoral College to bring about a meaningful remedy.  Neil K. Evans, Esq.

This Petition for a Writ of Mandamus has  been submitted as an original action by Citizen petitioners from 5 swing states,  because only the Supreme Court can address a National Security crisis and failure to adhere to the Constitution of this historically unprecedented magnitude; particularly when the Congress and the Executive Office are in the hands of one party – with so many leaders of this one party, including the President and the Vice President and the Attorney General, currently under investigation for collusion with a hostile foreign nation.

The Court’s original jurisdiction is for matters of national crisis.  America is faced with a crisis of historically unprecedented magnitude – with a President who has allowed a Russian Dictator “to gain an improper ascendant in our councils,” which is exactly what Hamilton feared in Federalist No, 68.

Petitioners have original standing as citizens.

Excerpt:  “An action of this nature  can be brought if there is no other adequate, specific, legal remedy.” Marbury v Madison, 5 U.S. 137, 150 (1803)

This Petition asks the Court first – to appoint Robert Mueller as a Special Master to continue what he and his team are currently investigating as well as investigate the failure of the electoral process.  A Special Master is beholden only to the United States Supreme Court, with the full power and authority of the Court to empower the investigation.  The Court’s appointment of a Special Master would immediately remove the investigation currently underway from the corrupt Republican partisan political arena, to the non partisan realm of the Court, which Madison believed would be under the control of impartial Justices.

Only the Supreme Court can provide a nonpartisan arena.  It is fallacious and negative to assume the nine Justices (or a majority) are not Patriotic – or unconcerned with  the  Russian Cyber-war invasion, and  the empirical failure of the Electoral process to adhere to the Constitution & Framers’ intent.  It is simply   wrong to assume Justices of the U. S. Supreme Court believe our Republic can co-exist with treason.

And wrong to assume that Republicans with critical integrity, like Richard Painter and David Frum, are not outraged by pathological liars and acts of Treason regardless of their former party!

Excerpt:    Facts:     “James Clapper, Director of National Intelligence, Admiral Marcel Lettre, Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence, and Admiral Michael S. Rogers, USN Commander, U.S. Cyber Command Director, National Security Agency, 5 January 2017, Joint Statement for the Record to the Armed Services Committee, Foreign Cyber Threat to the United States:   Cyber Warfare is a 21st Century form of invasion: hacking, propagandizing, stealing campaign plans and voting rolls, to serve Russia’s interest in disrupting Democracies and controlling the affairs of the United States; of which is invasion by an enemy.’ … ‘Cyber Threat Actors: Russia.  Russia is a full scope cyber actor that poses a major threat to U.S. Government, military , diplomatic, commercial and critical infrastructure and key resource networks because of its highly advanced offensive cyber program and sophisticated tactics, techniques, and procedures …”  “unclassified.”   https://www.armed-services.senate.gov/download/17-01_01-05-17

Imagine what was classified and known prior to 11/8/16…

The Court has the Constitutional right to protect our Democracy from a foreign invasion:

Article IV, Section 4 of the United States Constitution states:  “The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the Legislature, or the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be convened) against domestic Violence.” 

Convene a legislature controlled by the Republican party and the Party of the President that is complicit in the invasion?

The Court has the right and power to enforce  violations of the Constitution & the Framers’ intent:    The United States Constitution, Article II, Section 1, provides:   “Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.”

Excerpt:   The Electoral College process mandated in Article II, Section 1. of the Constitution was not followed if  more the 50 Republican Electors were  not Constitutionally qualified.

It is self-evident the Electors did not follow the explicit instructions set forth in the Federalist Papers by Madison and Hamilton regarding the Framers clear intent for Electors to serve as a safeguard to not confirm a President Elect with deficiencies described as follows:

Excerpt:  Alexander Hamilton wrote, in regard to the means of election of the President:  “Nothing was to be more desired than that every practicable obstacle should be opposed to cabal, intrigue, and corruption.  These most deadly adversaries of republican government might naturally have been expected to make their approaches from more than one quarter, but chiefly in the desire in foreign powers to gain an improper ascendant in our councils.  How could they better gratify this than by raising a creature of their own to the chief magistry of the Union?” The Federalist, No. 68 (Alexander Hamilton)

The Electoral process critically failed the first  time in our Nations history that so much depended upon Electors acting in accordance with the Framer’s intent underlying the most fundamental reason for the Electoral College.

Additionally, the Petition asks whether Electoral College and  Electors should be directed to adhere to the Constitution and the original intent of the Framers, clearly expressed in the Federalist Papers, to avoid in the future – the clear and present danger caused by not following  Hamilton’s explicit mandate in Federalist No. 68.

Excerpt:  “Donald Trump’s election is the embodiment of what Hamilton feared: a Russian dictator has gained “an improper ascendant in our councils.”[17]

[17] See also Article III, § 3, “Treason against the United States, shall consist only in levying war against them, or in adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort.”

Excerpt:  A United States District Court, over forty (40) years ago, held that: “Protecting the integrity of elections particularly Presidential contests is essential to a free and democratic society. … It is difficult to imagine a more damaging blow to the public confidence in the electoral process than the election of a President whose margin of victory was provided by fraudulent registration or voting, ballot-stuffing or other illegal means.” Donohue v. Board of Elections of New York State, 435 F.Supp. 957, 967 (E.D.N.Y. 1976).

Excerpt:  The Ninth Amendment states: “The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people:

Excerpt:    Free and Fair Elections are the Lifeblood of Democracy and Individual Freedom.

Excerpt:  “In Griswold v. Connecticut, 381 U.S. 479, 493, 85 S. Ct. 1678, 1686, 14 L.Ed.2d 510 (1965), Justice Goldberg, writing in concurrence, noted:     ‘Nor am I turning somersaults with history in arguing that the Ninth Amendment is relevant in a case dealing with a State’s infringement of a fundamental right. While the Ninth Amendment—and indeed the entire Bill of Rights—originally concerned restrictions upon federal power, the subsequently enacted Fourteenth Amendmentprohibits the States as well from abridging fundamental liberties.  And, the Ninth Amendment, in indicating that not all such liberties are specifically mentioned in the first eight amendments, is surely relevant in showing the existence of other fundamental personal rights, now protected from state, as well as federal, infringement.’ ”  

The 9th Amendment  provides for a Citizen’s right to a “free and fair” election.  Our Democracy is the role model for free and fair elections, and serves as the role model for the globe.

Excerpt:  Prelude to Conclusion: 

“The Russian Cyber invasion of this country needs to be strongly rebuked and fully remedied without giving any consideration to politics; and the way in which the Electoral College process needs to be broadened so as to adhere to the original intent of the Founders.

A Russian Cyber War attack on the integrity of America’s free and fair elections, elections that have been a beacon of freedom for emerging Democracies and existing Democracies throughout the globe, must be defeated by the exercise of the full authority of the Supreme Court of United States to reassure all Americans and the Nations watching that the United States is fully prepared to defend itself from without and within so that the right to life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness is preserved.”

The  new Petition is available for review by interested parties upon request.  There is a blanket agreement from Petitioners for Amicus briefs and anything our lead attorney deems necessary regarding additional counsel.

Henry Schoenberger: 216-752-3244;  Larry Shane: 216-536-1446;  Neil K. Evans Esq.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Preface to Supreme Court Case #17-857: 1 Page. Fix the 2016 Russian Thrown Election

QUESTIONS PRESENTED
Preface
Petitioners believe Donald Trump was
unlawfully elected President. This Petition lays out
facts and the Court’s constitutional authority to
resolve this matter of historically unprecedented
magnitude. The Petitioners’ sole intent is to protect
the public good, and trust the Justices of the Court
to consider this Petition as American patriots who
will not be bound by partisan politics. Our survival
as a Republic depends on Americans having the
courage and wisdom to consider these questions.
Petitioners present the following Questions:
1. Whether this Court should order a Special
Master to be appointed to investigate widespread
allegations that the primary and general 2016
presidential elections were corrupted by a
Russian cyberwarfare invasion, in collusion with
members of the Republican presidential
campaign and Republican leaders, and should
Robert Mueller be the Special Master to continue
the current investigation under the aegis of the
Court.
2. Whether the Court should also direct the Special
Master to investigate: (a) if the Electors were
qualified under the Constitution article II, § 1; (b)
if the Electors acted in accordance with the intent
of the Framers as delineated particularly in
Hamilton’s Federalist No. 68; and (c) if the
Electoral College and the Electors should have
adhered to the Constitution and the Framer’s
ii
intent for the Electors to evaluate whether the
President-elect has evidenced the character,
capabilities, and good judgment to serve as
President, with no ties whatsoever to foreign
nations.
3. If the Special Master finds there was a Russian
cyberwarfare invasion to subvert the result of the
November 8, 2016, presidential election, and
there was collusion on the part of Americans
supporting the Republican presidential
campaign, and there was a failure of the
Electoral College to perform its function as
intended by the Framers to protect the nation,
then whether the persons presently holding the
offices of President and Vice President should be
removed; and further, whether the candidate
who came in second—with a substantial popular
vote plurality—should be declared the President
and serve out the balance of the current term; or
whether there should be a new vote of qualified
Electors adhering to the Framers’ intent.
iii
RULE 29.6 STATEMENT
Pursuant to Supreme Court Rule 29.6,
Petitioners state they are individual citizens and
therefore are neither corporate entities nor subject
to having any stock or similar interest held by
anyone or any entity nor have any

Antidepressants on BBC: The Oxford Study, Questioned here by Anti-psychiatry

    •    This news report began by saying that this new study has “proven” that anti-depressants are good for us, “ending all controversy,” “finally.” What it actually demonstrates is that for a pre-selected group, the drugs were more effective “on the average” than a placebo, or a fake pill, and that over an 8 week period (i.e., ignoring long term effects and discounting the initial bad reaction many people have to these drugs), for those categorized as suffering “moderate to severe” depression, while agreeing that antidepressants are over-prescribed for “mild” depression. These categories, mild, severe and the like, themselves are not established scientifically (but rather are set on the basis of a common sense judgment). Hence, far from proving that a million more people in the U. K. need to be drugged, and far from ending all controversy about antidepressants, the study only shows that slightly more than half of people who are very sad say they like the drugs for a little while. We knew that. What we do not know is why the BBC is sending out such drivel at such a time.

      The following are some of the tweets preserved as the news reports were released, in reverse order and roughly edited:

         They spent six years studying a pre-selected group, “120,000,” and never mention “SUICIDAL” tendencies as a known side effect on the BBC. As the old Mum says, “it says so right on the (f’n) can, those are the “side effects.”

         Andrei Chipriani is the shrink who published the study reported on the BBC that I accuse of being profitable disinformation. Oh, and today, they add, only “60%” “Respond” to their “treatment,” and those are indeed the basis of their stupid study, just as I guessed:

    Tweet:…And, those few are probably pre-selected for those who report that they do feel better, disregarding the “side effects!” Antidepressants do far more harm than good, and the drug oligarchs (panels of shareholder value algorithmic bank accounts) can stuff them, perhaps with some “Abilify.”

       “Just don’t smoke weed for depression,” cause the f’n oligarchs might not be able to control the profits, and its less addictive than coffee! I have said I will believe the shrinks and society in general are actually concerned with depression remedies when they legalize weed.*

       Similarly, we might begin to trust the “professionals” in their efforts at rehabilitating people from heroin addiction if they would recognize the obvious benefit of marijuana to such an effort. We have just been subjected to an enormous, now uncovered Oxy-heroin scam, and the drug companies legal and illegal are still interfering with Congress and public opinion to retain this multi-billion dollar industry. One immediately saw genuine pain sufferers forced to cry out loudly because Congress began to limit Oxy for everyone, with a blanket law, rather than craft laws carefully to follow distinctions, and return to non opioid pain remedies so as to stem the flow of the children into the river of the heroin dealers. My own representative is still spouting such drivel. We saw invisible criminal actors organized to make money off the rehab efforts, rehab recruiting companies whose first question was what is ones insurance company, swallowing up the seven hundred some million dollars Congress threw at the problem to make it look like they were doing something. Investigative journalism uncovered and reported on such things centered especially in certain cities in Florida. Now it is becoming apparent that the same efforts are being redoubled into antidepressants.

       One cannot believe the combination of stupidity and dishonesty in the once trustworthy medical profession, where doctors once took seriously an oath to heal, period.

       Weed in small amounts churns the knowledge within the soul that compensates the conscious attitude, so that, as with dreams, the soul produces healing contents on its own. The shore line between conscious and unconscious becomes slightly more passable, and thought mildly awakens, which is why the old fashioned non addictive remedies, weed and coffee, and even the toxic and addictive alcohol and naturally grown, less carcinogenic cigarettes, were the politically correct ancient remedies, rather than the TOXIC AND ADDICTIVE self serving prescriptions of BIG PHARMA.

       I will not let them go for the death of the musician Nick Drake, apparently from an accidental overdose of prescribed antidepressants. They neglect the little practical inconvenience that suffering souls forget how much they have taken, or hurt so badly they do not care.

       The BBC “study” is a fine example of profitable disinformation. Strangely, it tells us what to conclude, telling us the study has “proven,” “finally” etc, and THEN it explains, in words that most do not hear, about how limited the scope of their stupid “study” is. What it actually claims to show is that on the average the drugs seem to perform better than doing nothing plus taking a fake pill, and that only for a few. And it is questionable whether the study even shows that!

    [Interlude] Sarcasm often does not come across in writing, due to the limitations of the written word. And so I have takes to marking sarcastic statements before saying the, as an exclamation point is often not sufficient punctuation. Comedy in general is based both on an ignorance and knowledge. Hobbes famously noted the satire of ignorance involved in every joke, as there is something we have to “get,” and it would not be humorous if we already knew or if everyone got it. Hence, comedy is inherently dangerous due first to the anger of the ignorant, which must be dodged, like the Fool in King Lear. But there is also a common sense truth at the same time, communicating knowledge. There.

    There are four great songs of despair in our study of lyrics, but I will not include these here. Rather, here are some remedial sad songs:

    Leonard Cohen — Suzanne

    Leonard Cohen – Farmous Blue Raincoat (Audio)

    Leonard Cohen – Famous Blue Raincoat (Live)

    [sarcasm] Oh, but they meant only a certain kind of depression, “moderate” to “severe,”and admit antidepressants are over-prescribed for “mild’ depression. And what they “prove” they are more effective on the average than placebos, so a million more need to take them.

    [sarcasm] Here is the argument that overcomes the reasoning below on the “proof” final in the “Oxford U.” study addressed below: I am heard by some 20 people, while the drug manufacturers are on BBC. Can you not smell disinformation?

    Yeah, someone finally liked my Leonard Cohen tweet! Thanx again!
    In the news just now is the terrible shooting and our response to it is considering gun control and “mental health” remedies. So I tweeted:
    Now, BBC, do me a study to counter the reasoning that if a bad man, who does not care about others or believe that murder is wrong, then is made to feel suicidal with easy access to guns….[sarcasm] oh, but “all question has been put to rest forever.”
       I have one person right here who says antidepressants made her feel suicidal. “Its a side effect, they tell you when you take ’em. They know that, they say it on t.v., its just a side effect. But other drugs make me feel that way, too. Lyrica is another I cannot take…”
       That same person has a brilliant insight into depression that shrinks do not get because they are too interested in their sophistry, treating souls to make money and gain reputation. Mum said: The purpose of depression (in natures psychic hygiene) is CHANGE. Depression is how we adapt, and as with anger, when we set things right, it has a purpose, though no souls are properly ordered so sadness does get away from us. What if we use drugs to inhibit the natural hygienic function of sorrow? The tears that clear the eyes and then they sparkle?
    By the way, did they take into account, for example, whether those treated with drugs for moderate to severe depression had for example just lost a child or spouse? Usually they do not. By the way, we do admit there is such a thing as unnatural depression, but it is much more rare than the Big Pharma bank account shareholder value algorithm would find profitable for us to believe.

       Sarcasm: BBC A British study has finally ended all question: Antidepressants are good, and a million more people could benefit from them. I believe they simply asked, do you feel better, short term? W/o checking why these drugs seem to be involved in 100% of one kind of shooting.

       *The present efforts to grow “medicinal” weed are plagued by organized crime and again corrupt legislation. Growers poison the organic plant with phosphorous and other chemicals sold to growers to maximize profits off a limited number of plants set by law. Attempts are made to control seeds, and the original plant is bound to be a subject for genetic engineering.

Arthur, Guinevere and the Ancient British

   A tweeter of Archaeology photos had asked: “Why did the Anglo-Saxons not become more British?”
   A friend asked me then to write a blog for his site, wanting pictures and something short rather than an “opus,” and not too “intellectual,” as would be an account of the mystery of Baptism. Since he is Welsh, and I have long inquired into these things as far as I have been able, I thought I would edit my brief account of the History of Arthur and Guinevere. Including, then, some comedy and photos, we will write of this tragedy:
   The reason that the English did not become more British turns out to be a bit of a long story, involving the legend of King Arthur and Guinevere, and what can be gleaned from history prior to the intentional embellishment in the Middle Ages, the loss of all civilization in the Dark Ages, and the intentional obscuring of the origins of Saint Helen, the mother of the great emperor Constantine. St. Helen is of course the empress who originated the collecting of Relics, finding the true cross and lance when, after Constantine became emperor, she visited Jerusalem in the late 320’s. Constantine was born about the year 272, and it is he who turned the Roman Empire away from the ten persecutions of Christianity from Nero to Diocletian to, astonishingly, Rome itself becoming Christian with the edict of toleration, in the year 313. Constantius had a palace at York, where he died and where Constantine was crowned. He is also said by Eusebius to have had many offspring, Constantine being the eldest, and as for most of his career he was only co-emperor, with Maxentius the extremely cruel tyrant at Rome, it would have been a near certainty that Constantius would have kept the family out of Rome and hidden away in Britain, at the fringes of the empire, for safety. Geoffrey writes that Guinevere came from York, and we are going to suggest the possibility that Guinevere is descended from the famous St. Helen and Constantius of York, with about 180 years- 210 years intervening.

    There she is, in the second earliest known photographic image (the first being the Turin shroud). People looked more like wood in those days.

If you would like to play a song in the background while you consider the psychological background of our inquiry, David Crosby, of the band Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, wrote this: Guinnevere Illustrated via

   Arthur is of course real, and the history is right in front of us, if we would look. The date of the kingship of Arthur is said to have been 516-542, and the Chronology of British events forming the background of the Arthurian legend is Roman Christian Britain after it had been cut off from the written history of the Roman world, just as the darkest period of the dark Ages descends over Britain. Arthur is said to be

  In a word, it is the Welsh or Brits that are “way cool.” Arthur is real. The reason people doubted whether Arthur was even real is that, as Holinshed writes “Gildas and Bede speak not anything of him.” Does Holinshed realize that for the same reason, we might doubt that there ever was a Saint Patrick? But Bede was English, writing in the Seventh Century. And the omission of Gildas, “the most ancient British writer, will be addressed below.

   Guinevere is from York, where Constantius, two centuries prior, crowned Constantine about 308 AD. Constantius is the husband of St. Helen, the mother of Constantine, responsible for the recovery of the sacred sites and the iconic traditions, at least of the Western Roman Empire. Constantius seems to have ditched her and Constantine their son when her “married” Theodora, the daughter of the then Roman emperor Maxentius, in order that Constantius become co-emperor. The latter marriage was more consistent with his co-emperorship. St. Ambrosius writes of her being a barmaid and stablemaid, all consistent with the legend of her being the daughter of Old King Coel Hen, from the territory just West of York, where there had been a Roman garrison since the time of Severus. These are the first Christian Roman Emperors. We even have photos of these folk:

   Constantine and his father Constantius (Co-Emperor 293-305), the first Roman Christian emperors, posing for photos without St. Helen (People looked more like metal in those days. Perhaps Helen was not in Rome at the time):

Photos above from Limitless Walls and Google
Photos below from American Heritage Bullion:

There she is!

   But there she is, in coins minted later, while Constantine was emperor, about the late 320’s. Women indeed looked more like gold in those days, if the men more commonly were like silver. Perhaps she was in Troy, once, or Britain, or digging about the trash dumps near the temple of Venus in Jerusalem, wearing rags and feathers.
   The Socratic account of the image in love turns out to be related to the honoring of contingent beings called idolatry in religion. While, as Socrates in Plato’s Phaedrus and the poet Steisichourus say, in error, that the blindness of Homer was cured by writing that Helen was not in Troy, it is Greekness or Helenica that indeed was not there. (Hellas was not at all at stake in the dishonor, if it was allowing Helen to run off with Paris, though if she were kidnapped, it might be a matter for war to avenge, so that insults and outrages not continue.) Hence the purpose of that war was naught, and the Trojans might have avoided the destruction of their condominiums and their city had they simply given Helen up, making the Platonic statement literally true, as Helen would have no longer been in Troy. But then we would not have had all those interesting descendants that have made for Western civilization! Yet indeed, “the beautiful” is not in the woman. Rather, it is an eidolon or phantom that, in love, we see, and Socrates, in the Republic, says that it was a phantom of Helen that was at Troy. And the same is true for our idolatry in religion. Our idolatry cannot be cured by simply changing names for the correct name.

   Constantius may more correctly be called the first Christian emperor because, as Co- Emperor, in a story from Eusebius (Life of Constantine, VII. xvi), he did the following: The usual test for Christians was to make them kiss an idol of the emperor, and when they refused, they would be subject to martyrdom, i.e., torture and murder. Constantius pretends to do this, to have those among his servants kiss the idol as if continuing the Diocletian persecution, but then those who would not kiss the idol, he takes into his service- those who would lay down their lives for their friend- and simply dismissed the servile pagans. When Constantius married St. Helen, begat Constantine (about 272), and the boy grew to recall the image of the cross seen in the sky, with the saying “by this conquer,” the conversion of the Roman empire was sealed. Constantius died at York as sole Emperor (305-306, after having been co-emperor with the cruel tyrant Maxentius for some years, and Constantine was crowned there.

   Guinevere was likely descended from the imperial nobility at York, and so, two centuries later, the most eligible bachelorette for King Arthur. York suffered as the Saxons expanded, and it would be likely that the family of Guinevere would have to flee, and she is said to have been raised in safety at Cornwall. Lancelot, though, is first written of by Cretien La Trios, the Welsh being unlikely to say such things about the Queen. Geoffrey has Guinevere seized by Mordred, and does not tell of her kissing Lancelot. But from the knowledge of the soul, one may suspect that some such thing would be at the root of the destruction of the round table, the depression of the king, the recession in the realm, and the battle being a civil war, against Mordred, rather than against the Angles, Saxons and Jutes, since the English had been defeated and were no longer advancing. Gerald of Wales writes that the Saxons had been expelled by Arthur, but that Mordred, repeating the error of Vortigern a century earlier, invited them back to help him against Arthur.

   Arthur reigned about 516-542, apparently dying at a battle of Mt. Badon. Ambrosius also fought a battle at Mt. Badon, against the invading English. Avalon of course is Glastonbury Abbey. It was once an island with many apple trees, a sort of paradise, and a good place for a monastery. The monks there preserve a tradition that goes back to Joseph of Arimathea, who came with the Grail in 70 AD, fleeing to the edge of the civilized world from the Roman persecution of the early Christians. The first to write about the Grail in connection with Joseph of Arimathea and the hill at Glastonbury is said to be Robert de Boron writing about the year 1200 (Matarasso, The Quest of the Holy Grail, p. 12)

To pretend to dominion over the conscience is to usurp the prerogative of God. By the nature of things the power of sovereigns is confined to political government; they have no right of punishment except over those that disturb the public peace the most dangerous heresy is that of a sovereign who separates himself from the part of his subjects because they believe not according to his belief
                                                                   (Durants, IV, p. 100-101).
At this time, Constantius, a man of exceptional kindness and Courtesy, who governed Gaul and Spain during the lifetime of Diocletian, died in Britain. His son Constantine, the child of Helena his concubine, succeeded him as ruler of Gaul. Eutropius writes that Constantine, proclaimed Emperor in Britain, succeeded to his father’s domains…
                                                History of the English Church and People, I.8
   Following the tyranny of Vortigern and immigration of the Saxons beginning about 449, the British were further defeated and impoverished. Of Aurelianus Ambrosius, Gildas, writes:
(pgp-gh 25)…that they might not be brought to utter destruction, took arms under the conduct of Ambrosius Aurelianus, a modest man, who of all the Roman nation was then alone in the confusion of this troubled period by chance left alive. His parents, who for their merit were adorned with the purple, had been slain in these same broils, and now his progeny, in these our days, although shamefully degenerated from the worthiness of their ancestors, provoke to battle their cruel conquerors, and by the goodness of our Lord obtain the victory.
(Pgph 26) After this, sometimes our countrymen, sometimes the enemy, won the field to the end that our Lord might in this land try after his accustomed manner these his Israelites, whether they loved him or not, until the year of the siege of Bath hill, when took place also the last almost, though not the least slaughter of our cruel foes, which was (as I am sure) forty four years and one month after the landing of the Saxons, and also the time of my own nativity. And yet neither to this day are the cities of our country inhabited as before, but being forsaken and overthrown, still lie desolate; our foreign wars having ceased, but our civil troubles still remaining. For as well the remembrance of such a terrible desolation of the island, as also of the unexpected recovery of the same remained in the minds of those who were eyewitnesses of the wonderful events of both, and in regard therof, kings, public magistrates, and private persons, with priests and clergymen, did all and every one of them live orderly according to their several vocations. But when these had departed out of this world, and a new race succeeded, who were ignorant of this troublesome time, and had only experiences of the present prosperity, all the laws of truth and justice were so shaken and subverted, that not so much as a vestige or remembrance of these virtues remained among the above named orders of men, except among a very few, who, compared with the great multitude which were daily rushing headlong down to hell, are accounted so small a number, that our reverend mother, the church, scarcely beholds them, her only true children, reposing in her bosom; whose worthy lives being a pattern to all men, and beloved of God, inasmuch as by their holy prayers, as by certain pillars and most profitable supporters, our infirmity is sustained up, that it may not utterly be broken down…
                                                                                    (translated by J.A. Giles)
   “The purple” need not be a share in Imperial office, but may also have referred to the Roman equestrian order, that is, knighthood. Holinshed calls this one- the father of Geoffrey’s Constans, Aurelius Ambrosius and Uther Pendragon- Holinshed calls him “Constantine,” a Roman General who entered Britain from Brittany, was, according to Holinshed, made king of the Britons in 433, but murdered, as was his son, whom Geoffrey calls Constans, but Holinshed “Constantine.” The parents of Aurelius Ambrosius, according to Gildas, were “slain in these wars.”  Bede writes that the parents of Ambrosius were “of royal birth and title (I.16), and addresses the confusion of two Constantines, for when Gratian was killed by Maximus in 388…
…in his place Constantine, a common trooper of no merit, was chosen emperor solely on account of his auspicious name. Once he had obtained the power, he crossed into Gaul…Before long, at the orders of Honorius, Count Constantius entered Gaul with an army, besieged Constantine in the city of Arles, captured him, and put him to death. His son Constans, a monk whom he had created Caesar, was put to death by Count Gerontius in Vienne.
   The parents of Ambosius, the Grandparents of Arthur and parents also of Uther Pendragon, were of one or the other of these two Roman lines bearing the names from the first Constantius and Constantine. Holinshed, too, tries to clarify this confusion of Constantines in the third and fourth generation from the Great one who died in 339. It does seem likely, though, that either line could be related to one of the sons of Constantine in the previous generation or two.
   The writer of the Welsh Annales, recording history preserved among the scattered Welsh, writes of Patrick, and sets the death of Gildas at 570, making Gildas either 77 or 113, and writing of the events following Aurelianus’s battle at Badon either when he was about 7 or about 51. The dates for Arthur, the same in Geoffrey and Nennius, are 516-542. Our dates themselves are set on certain assumptions, and Bede too is famous for the discussion of the Calendar.
   In his second section, where Gildas reprimands four or five war lords who seem to have reigned before Arthur and after Aurelianus Ambrosious, Constantine, after taking an oath, killed two royal youths at the altar. Who would these two royal youths be if not sons of Aurelius Ambrosius or Uther? Aurelius Conanus is the son of non-Christian parents who were killed in the prime of their youth. Vortipore is called “tyrant of the Dametians, naughty son of a good king, now graying, guilty of murders and adulteries. He is likely the son of Vortipore, who was the son of Vortigern. Cuneglasse is said to be the rider and ruler of many, a contemner of God and a hater of the Church who set aside his wife to marry her sister, who was a nun. The fifth is “Megalocune.” Megalocune is addressed as nephew to the king, heaping upon his “kingly shoulders” a load of sins. But upon examination, the last addressed is Christian, and may well be Arthur or Uther Pendragon. Two points from Gerald of Wales make this seem an un-excluded possibility (is it yet included?): the great size of the bones of Arthur and the inscription saying that Guinevere was his “second wife.” Gildas may speak as Churchmen do who judge by convention, and identify, for example, conventional marriage with true marriage and artificial piety with natural virtue. For it seems this Megalocune is given to hearing bards tell flattering tales in song, “rung out after the fashion of the giddy rout of Bacchus by the mouths of thy villainous followers…vessel…This Megalocune is said to have married his nephew’s wife, and for this is accused of two murders, of each, though Gildas may simply mean the murder of their souls in convention, if the first marriages were conventional and the second based on true love. Finally, Gildas writes:
And, the just king (according to the prophet) raiseth up his region. But warnings truly are not wanting to thee, since thou had for thy instructor the most eloquent master of almost all Britain. Take heed, therefore, lest that which Solomon noteth, befall thee, which is, “Even as he who stireth a sleeping man out of his heavy sleep, so is that person who declareth wisdom unto a fool, for in the end of his speech will he say, What hadst thou first spoken?
Gildas speaks to this one as the present king, and says enough that it can be known he is a Christian king. He says says nothing inconsistent with this one being the Arthur known not to the poets that come later, but to history, addressed so as to remain within propriety, and early enough in his career, say, 516-524, to cohere with the other things written previously pertaining to the time of peace with the Saxons but civil turmoil following the death of Ambrosius Aurelianus and the first battle of Badon in 493. The revellings sound quite like a liberally educated prince having fun and living a normal life of the liberal arts from the view of an austere Churchman, who, however, may be more correct than wrong in his warning to Arthur. The “most eloquent master of almost all of Britain” may be Gildas himself, or Merlin Ambrosius, someone likely to be famed rather than forgotten completely.
   Concluding the first section, Gildas says that he does not wish to declare the concealed vices of his countrymen to the wider world so much as to “bewail the wickedness of those who have become servants not only to their bellies, but also to the devil rather than to Christ…”  In the second section, he then writes first against 5 warlords who ruled after Aurelianus Ambrosius, that is, after 449+44=493 AD. And then against the churchmen of Britain, going therough the old and new testaments while railing at them in tones again similar to Luther. This, a time of great corruption due to the luxury following the victory of Ambrosius, is the circumstance into which the real Arthur is born, about 501 AD. If Megalocune” is not Arthur- and I do think he is-, then Gildas, or the part of his writing we have preserved, just barely missed the event of Arthur, though Nennius lists the death date of Gildas as 570. He wrote at least the first 26 paragraphs in a time of peace, when Ambrosius was the last victorious British general. There seems little reason to hypothesize the identification of Arthur with Ambrosius, the brother of Uther, nor, to say thye least, with Riothamus, though the work of Ashe is impressive and quite helpful in seeing into the period. Those histories would have been preserved, or at least writers would write in a way that cohered with other things known, such as the time and effect of the Saxon invasion, and its geography, pushing the Roman Britons gradually West, from St. Martins and London (Lud-don, or Lud’s city, also called Trinovantium, or “New Troy”) to the area of Westminster and Silchester, near Arthur’s Camelot, and finally to Glastonbury-Avalon and North into what is now Wales, toward Snowdon, and even into Scotland where some of my own MacDomnwald ancestors became “Lords of the Isles.”
   The first was at the mouth of the river called Glein. The second, third, fourth and fifth were on another river, called the Douglas, which is in the country of Lindsey. The sixth battle was on the river called Bassas. The seventh was in celyddon Forest, that is the battle of Celyddon Coed. The eighth battle was in Guinnon fort, and in it Arthur carried the image of the holy Mary, the everlasting Virgin, on [his shield,]…The ninth battle was fought in the city of Legion. The tenth battle battle was fought on the bank of the river called Tryfrwyd. The eleventh battle was on the hill called Agned. The twelfth battle was on Badon hill, and in it 960 men fell from a single charge of Arthur’s…
                                                                     Nennius,
Whoever suffers death for the sake of his brothers offers himself as a living sacrifice to God and follows with firm footsteps behind Christ himself, who did not disdain to lay down his life for his brothers…
Dubricius is thinking of the passage in John, (15:13) “Greater love has no  man than that he lay down his life for his friends…” Death in war as penance and absolution is  a slightly different if related idea. We say that our police do this “every time they punch the clock,” as do our citizens accidentally shot.
…   But we have not only the name Constans, but also a Constantine who is one of the five addressed by Gildas, As in the line of the Roman emperors, the name is repeated as successive generations bear the name of honored progenitors. Hence we have a Constantine II, then a Constantius II, then a Constans in the first Christian century of the Roman emperors, and in little more than a century, the connection of Britain with Rome is severed.
   Holinshed has, though, some report of the parents of Canstans, Aurelius Abrosious and Uther Pendragon that will assist us in connecting the royal line of Arthur himself with that of the Roman Constantius and his Son Constantine. Following the report of “our writers on this matter, Holinshed, writing in the 1500’s, of the time (409-449) between the abandonment of Britain by the Romans and the arrival of the Saxons invited by Vortigern, One Constantuius the brother of Aldroenus, King of Armorica or Brittany across the channel, a General of the Romans, a Century after the first Constantius, entered Britain to help the British against the more barbarous Scots (Irish) and Picts Holinshed, following Geoffrey and especially Matthew of Westminster sets the following as a capsule and summary:
…When the Britons had thus overcome their enemies they conveyed their captain the said Constantine unto Cicester, and there in fulfilling their promisde and covenant made to his brother, crowned him king of Great Britain, in the year of our Lord 433, which was about the fifth year of the emperor Valentinianus the second and the third year of Coidius king of the Frankers after called Frenchmen, which then began to settle themselves in Gallia, whereby the name of that country was afterwards changed and called France. Constantine being thus established as king, ruled the land well and nobly, and defended it from all invasion of enemies during his life. He begat of his wife three sons, as the British later affirm) Constantius, Aurelius Ambrosius, and Uter surnamed Pendragon. The eldest, because he perceived him to be dull of wit, and not very toward, he made a monk, placing him within the abbey of Amphibalus in Winchester.
                            Book V, p. 533 (London 1807 J.Johnson, NY, 1965 edition)
In France, the Marovingian dynasty is being set, as Clovis inherits the throne in 481 at age 15. Clovis defeated the remnants of a Roman arnmy in 486, and marri9ed a Nicene Christian Clothide, converting the Kingdom of the French away from the Arianism of the Visigoths and Burgundians He divided France among his three sons, who added Burgundy and Provence to France around the end of the days of Arthur (537-539). This is the Marovingian dynasty that soon became the mere figurehead monarchy replaced by Charles Martel, the grandfather of Charlemagne, in the 700’s. Also in 537, Pope Silverius is removed from Rome by Belasarius, the General of the Eastern emperor Justinian (527-565), who closed the academy at Athens in the second year of his reign. Monophysite heresy was by then the question, the Arian and Pelagian issues having been settled. By 597, Pope Gregory would send Augustine to convert the English as well, though thwere is neve a question of Heresy in Britain. One expects that following Constantius and St. Helen, the Brits were simply Nicene Christians who rejected Pelagius and never even had to consider the Monophysite question, as the empire was then remote from Britain for a century. Geoffrey shows a Roman army attacking Arthur, but the threat would have been less serious than it was for the Franks.
   The list of the emperors becomes quite tangled due to the practice of co-emperors and the division between the Eastern and Western emperors. The Roman emperors who may be descended from the British house at York, if Constantine was indeed crowned there and Constantius died there, would then be Constantuis (293-305), Constantine (313-337, Constantine II (337-340), Constantius II 337-361, and Constans (337-350). Note also, in the appendice below, that at the time when Britain was abandoned by Rome (409), about the time Patrick was born, a “Constans II” held some share in the Imperial office. This is the name- Constans- Geoffrey takes for the brother of Aurelianus Ambrosius made king by Vortigern so that the latter could usurp the tyranny. This Constans, killed between 439 and 449, would be the son of one or the other Constantine. 
   It is amusing that, following the end of the Roman empire marked at 478, the death throes having continued from the sack of Rome by Aleric in 410, Aurelius Ambrosius, and hence Uther and Arthur, would actually be the last of the Roman Emperors. In the story of the Round table, where the question of heresy does not arise, but rather the quest is for the Grail. The possibility here is that, were it not for the destruction of the Round Table, what occurred regarding Charlemagne- the beginnings of the Holy Roman empire and the centering of the Western empire in France would have occurred regarding Britain instead, especially since the Roman British Christian were a Christian nation older than the Barbarian French, and indeed older than Roman Christendom. the Brits having been converted as a nation, again, in 176, while the Romans were killing Christians until the early 300’s.

 

   The Arthurian line died out, as Arthur and Guinevere had no heir that is well known. We will return to Geoffrey, who is full of interesting details, such as that Arthur had a sister (aunt?) Anna married to Loth who defended the realm when Uther was ill. One son of Arthur is mentioned, but the history is quite unclear following Arthur. It is likely that at this time, the Saxons completed the scattering of the Welsh, and writing became very rare. If Gildas remained after the last battle of Mordred and Arthur, he may have had no news in Brittany from Britain.
What Geoffrey has is that when Arthur killed Mordred but received his mortal wounds, …
He handed the crown of Britain over to his cousin Constantine, the son of Cador, duke of Cornwall: this in the year 542 after our Lord’s incarnation.
                                                           The History of the Kings of Britain, xi.2
   It was in the house of Cador, we recall, that Guinevere is said to have been raised. Cador had married the sister of Ygern, the mother of Arthur. This next Constantine continued to fight the sons of Mordred with success, died and was buried inside the Giant’s ring beside Utherpendragon. The nephew of this Constantine, called Aurelius Conanus, succeeds to rule, taking the crown which should have gone to an uncle, likely another brother of Constantine the cousin of Arthur. He is followed within three years by a Vortiporius, a Malgo and a Keredic. Aurelius Conanus provides a connection to Gildas, as this is also the name of one of the five princes addressed by Gildas. This Conanus likely either is or is descended from the one addressed by Gildas, supporting the theory of a gap between the two sections of Gildas, as if Gildas had thrown his books on Arthur into the sea, and addressed 5 princes of about 542, just after Arthur.
   The civil wars following Arthur are the occasion on which Goeffrey makes the first “House Divided” speech, taken up again by Abraham Lincoln:
You foolish people…Keep up with your civil squabbling and forget what the Gospel says: ‘Every kingdom divided against itself shall be brought to desolation, and a house divided against itself shall fall.’ Because your kingdom was divided, against itself, because the lunacy of civil war and the smoke cloud of jealousy obscured your mind, because your pride did not permit you to obey a single king, that is why you see see your fatherland ravaged by the most impious heathens and your homesteads overturned one upon the other, all of which things those who come after will lament in the future…
   This, and the recession in Wales, though, from after 516-542, may indeed have been the result of the depression of the king and something like what is thought to have occurred regarding Lancelot. Two lines of Royal blood may have been joined in the marriage of Arthur and Guinevere, although it may be too that, being from York, and of such beauty, as with the Christ, the true linage is through the maternal line, while the legal lineage is through Joseph, as described in the opening of Matthew- though both are of the tribe of Judah and David, as was prophesied (in addition to his being born in Bethlehem, and called a Nazarene. Herod’s slaughter of the innocents verifies that this is what was thought even then, and Rachael weeping for her children is yet another prophecy, as the tomb of Rachael is in Bethlehem of Judea. Joseph was, of course, a very old man, and so is gone by the time of the ministry of Jesus, while Mary was very young, a virgin dedicated by Anna and Juachim to the temple, married to Joseph by lot and placed in his care (See The Nativity of Mary). Hence the “brothers” of Jesus, such as James the Just, are likely sons of Joseph and the brothers of Jesus in law.
   Arthur Retook York from the Saxons, and found everything destroyed, and rebuilt the churches. Geoffrey writes:
In York there were three brothers sprung from the royal line, Loth, Urien and Auguslus, who had been princes in those parts before the Saxon victories. Loth”in the days of Aureliaius Ambrosius had married that king’s own sister, and had two sons by her, Gawain and Mordred.”
Loth is set up over Lothian.  Geoffrey then writes of Arthur:
He himself married a woman called Guinevere. She was descended from a noble Roman family and had been brought up in the household of Duke Cador. She was the most beautiful woman in the entire island.”
                                                                                   (ix, 9)
   St. Helen may have been the daughter of Old King Cole (Geoffrey ). Another tradition is that she came from the regions that became the Eastern Empire, apparently based upon the naming of a city in Bithynia of the Eastern Empire after St. Helen, as were two other cities. No other origin of Helen has even been suggested. The dates projected backward from the genealogy of the Welsh, the Harleian Genealogies. Hen means “the old,” And hence this is Old King Coel, the merry old soul, alive at just the time a bride of Constantius would have been, and further, suspected to have been a Roman General in the area just West of York. When he died, he divided his estate among his children.
…Projections back from dated individuals suggest that Coel Hen lived around AD 350–420, during the time of the Roman departure from Britain.[8] In his book The Age of Arthur, historian John Morris suggested Coel may have been the last of the Roman Duces Brittanniarum (Dukes of the Britons) who commanded the Roman army in northern Britain, and split his lands among his heirs after his death(Wikipedia).[10]
   The same would make perfect sense out of the meeting of Constantine and St. Helen in York, where she was a simple and industrious and unpretentious Christian princess, and of Constantine having a palace and family at York where he died and Constantine was crowned, becoming Emperor of Rome, while the rest of the family remained behind in York, leading to the birth of Guinevere some 5 or 6 generations later, forgotten because York too was nearly abandoned in the years that followed. After being forced by circumstances to marry Theodora the daughter of the wicked co- emperor Maximian, it is not surprising that Helen and Constantine were sent away, the later becoming a hostage of Diocletian, but Helen most likely returning to the palace at York.
The following too appears on Wikipedia under Coel Hen, with notes 20-22 to Geoffrey’s History:

Colchester legend

By the 12th century, Coel had become attached to the “Colchester legend”, which claimed he was a ruler of Colchester in Essex and the father of Saint Helena, and therefore the grandfather of Constantine the Great. The legend originated from a folk etymology indicating that Colchester was named for Coel (supposedly from “Coel” and “castrum“, producing “fortress of Coel”). However, the city was actually known as Colneceaster until the n was dropped in around the 10th century; its name likely comes from the local River Colne.[12][13]

Ah, but Colin, the Scottish name passed down in our family, is also from Coel. We have Colin-s and Colin James’ going back at least to Kingsville Ontario from about 1860, then a Peter, the father of this Colin, then we lose the scent. But I have seen the midwife’s book recording the birth of this Colin, written by his grandmother Julianna Wigle, shown to me by Madeline Malotte. The French line is traces into the 1500’s

Around the same time, a further development of this legend that King Coel of Colchester was the father of Empress Saint Helena, and therefore the grandfather of Constantine the Great, appeared in Henry of Huntingdon‘s Historia Anglorum and Geoffrey of Monmouth‘s Historia Regum Britanniae.[14][15][16] The passages are clearly related, even using some of the same words, but it is not clear which version was first. Henry appears to have written the relevant part of the Historia Anglorum before he knew about Geoffrey’s work, leading J. S. P. Tatlock and other scholars to conclude that Geoffrey borrowed the passage from Henry, rather than the other way around.[17][18] The source of the claim is unknown, but may have predated both Henry and Geoffrey. Diana Greenway proposes it came from a lost hagiography of Helena;[17] Antonia Harbus suggests it came instead from oral tradition.[19]

   Ah, but Colchester- with question marks- is the sixth city listed among the 28 cities of Briain recorded by Nennius in 809. 

   Geoffrey’s largely legendary Historia Regum Britanniae expands upon Henry’s brief mention, listing Coel as a King of the Britons following the reign of King Asclepiodotus.[20] In the Historia, Coel grows upset with Asclepiodotus’s handling of the Diocletianic Persecution and begins a rebellion in his duchy of Caer Colun (Colchester). He meets Asclepiodotus in battle and kills him, thus taking the kingship of Britain upon himself. Rome, apparently, is pleased that Britain has a new king, and sends senator Constantius Chlorus to negotiate with him. Afraid of the Romans, Coel meets Constantius and agrees to pay tribute and submit to Roman laws as long as he is allowed to retain the kingship. Constantius agrees to these terms, but Coel dies one month later.[20] Constantius marries Coel’s daughter, Helena, and crowns himself as Coel’s successor. Helena subsequently gives birth to a son who becomes the Emperor Constantine the Great, giving a British pedigree to the Roman imperial line.[21]

   Local tradition came to suggest that Coel was responsible for some of the ancient buildings in Colchester; a public conduit in the High Street was named “King Coel’s Pump”, the Balkerne Gate in the Roman town walls was known as “King Coel’s Castle” and the remains of the Temple of Claudius over which Colchester Castle was built were called “King Coel’s Palace”.[22]

   In the Welsh Descent of the Men of the North, there is an Arthwys” in the third generation from Coel, and a Gwenoleu in the fifth, showing that similar names would occur among the descendants of Coel, increasing the possibility that Guinevere was a descendant of Coel, though the fifth generation would likely bring us only to about 370-420, still nearly a century short of Arthur and Guinevere.
   Hence, Helen was not in Troy, but the new Helen was very near to Trinovantium, and likely drank from King Coel’s pump and grew up in his palace before moving North to York, where her father as a General of Constantius and a Christian married her to the Christian Emperor Constantius as his first and true wife, while his later legal wife remained in Rome. Geoffrey explains that there were three ancient noble families of British York:
There were in York three brothers sprung from the royal line, Loth, Urien and Auguselus, who had been princes in those parts before the Saxon victories…
Arthur gives Scotland to Auguselus, Morray to Urien, and Loth…
Who in the days of Aurelius Ambrosius had married that King’s own sister, and had two sons by her, Gawain and Mordred, he restored to the dukedom of Lothisan and other nearby territories…
Soon Loth is also given Norway…
Loth, who was his brother in law. Loth was nephew of Sichelm the King of Norway…his son Gawain had been sent by Arthur’s brother in law to servfe in the household of Pope Silpicius who had dubbed him a knight…
Geoffrey too writes that Guinevere was from an ancient family of York, but does not say which might be descended from Helen and Constantius. Our suggestion is that Guinevere too is a Cole. When the families of Ambrosius Aurelianus and York nobility join, it is as two lines descended from Constantius converging. A further strange coincidence is the name “Arthwys” in the Cole Coel line, as opposed to the Uther line, when Guenevere was a child refugee from York raised by Cowder in Cornwall, as was Arthur the supposed child of Uther.
         The Arthurian British, the ancient Roman Christian British, converted the world and the Roman Empire to Christian orders, replacing the barbarism of the non-Greek gentiles, had a church at St. Martins in London (following Bede, 4; 26), having been converted under King Lucius in the second century (156 AD, Bede 4; 26), one of the first if not the first of the Christian nations, long before Rome ceased the famous 10 persecutions of the church, and long long before the latter Augustine converted the invaders on the site of old St. Martin’s Church in Canterbury (Bede, 26). According to Holinshed, citing Hector Boecius, the Scottish historian, The first Coill was a Briton killed by Fergus, about 600 BC. Another was the father of Lucius, the first king to receive Christianity. Bede (I.4) writes that in 156 AD, in the reign of Marcus Aurelius and Commodius, “and while the holy Eleutherius ruled the Roman Church,
…Lucius, a British king, sent him a letter, asking to be made a Christian by his direction. This pious request was quickly granted, and the Britons received the Faith and held it peacefully in all its purity and fullness until the time of the Emperor Diocletian.
And Holinshed, out of Hector Boetius, writes:
Coell, the son of this Marius, had issue Lucius, counted the first christian king of this nation. He converted the three archflamens of this land into bishopriks, and ordered bishops onto each of them…
The three bishoprics were at London, York and Caerleon
   Celtic and English Christianity were then joined at the Synod of Whitby (664 AD), under Oswald. This is an interesting name, as it reappears too in Shakespeare’s King Lear). St. Colomba had brought Irish Christianity over to Scotland from Ireland, where, again, it had been planted by St. Patrick. St. Colomba was right in the neighborhood of my old McDonalds, Lords of the Isles, incorrigible old Celts, and we had a guy (The “murderous MacDonwald” the rebel killed by MacBeth at the opening of the play). Donvallo Malmutius, a B.C. British guy, may be the Donald of whom some Mac is the son.
   Geoffrey (xii.1) includes the story based on the account of Bede (II. 6?) of what occurred in 597 when Pope Gregory sent the later Augustine over to convert the English, and the British monks at Bangor and elsewhere would have nothing to do with the English. Ethelfrid, King of Kent, declared war on the British, who suffered then further massacres, one of 1200 monks at Bangor. As with Rome, changing the religion to Christian did not change Rome or mankind very much, while it warped the presentation of Christianity.
   But to conclude where we began, the relic called the Shroud of Turin may well be genuine. Pollen from Jerusalem in the first century was found on it, and the part tested by carbon 14 dating was a repair of the thirteenth century, after the shroud was damaged in a fire. If it is a forgery, no one can tell yet how it might have been made, as it is a three dimensional photographic negative, i.e., truly not only the first graphics, but the first photograph. The best suggestion- enough and more to convince our faithless scientific age- in which some still know the that, but most do not know WHY murder is wrong (why do you say?)- is that it is the impression on the burial shroud of Jesus of the light of the resurrection.

Led Zeppelin – The Battle Of Evermore https://youtu.be/7_3yDImIQYU via @YouTube

Which of these photos was the first photographic image ever produced?

  • The Niépce Heliograph HARRY RANSOM CENTER LOBBY GALLERY HOURS (ALSO MONDAY 10:00 A.M. – 5:00 P.M.) The invention of photography was announced simultaneously in France and England in 1839, dazzling the public and sending waves of excitement around the world.

Earlies photo with discernible humans, from History Lover’s Club, Twitter:

Image

9:14 PM · Aug 4, 2019Twitter Web App
Monty Python and the holy grail (1974) Sir Galahad ends up in a castle full of d – http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x4hy4xu via @DailymotionUSA
Joan Baez – Diamonds and Rust (With Lyrics) https://youtu.be/1ST9TZBb9v8 via @YouTube

Bibliography:

Ashe, Geoffrey. The Discovery of King Arthur. (NY: Debrett’s Peerage;  Anchor Press, 1985.

Bede. Ecclesiastical History.

Durants, Will and Ariel, The History of Civilization, Volume IV,.

Geoffrey of Monmouth. The History of the Kings of Britain.

Gerald of Wales. Description of Wales.

Gildas the Wise. History of Britain. Translated Giles, J. A. London, James Bohn, 1841.

McDonald, Mark A. On Shakespeare’s King Lear: On the Discovery of Nature and the Shakespearean Recovery of Socratic Natural Right.  Roman and Littlefield1997. Appendix F “On the origin of the Arthurian Legend and Gildas, the Most Ancient British Author.” 

Movie: The Mists of Avalon.

Nennius: Chronicle This is the first written mention of Arthur, giving credence to the report of Geoffrey on his secret sources.

 

Appendix I:

From the Life of Constantine by Eusebius (translated by )

   …His father was Constantius 3077 (and we ought to revive his memory at this time), the most illustrious emperor of our age; of whose life it is necessary briefly to relate a few particulars, which tell to the honor of his son.
Chapter XIII.—Of Constantius his Father, who refused to imitate Diocletian, Maximian, and Maxentius, 3078 in their Persecution of the Christians.3074 [Alluding probably to Ecclesiastes xi. 28, “Judge none blessed before his death; for a man shall be known in his children.” Or, possibly, to the well-known opinion of Solon to the same effect. Vide Herod. i. 32; Aristot. Eth. Nicom. i. II.—Bag.] Compare also above, chapter 7.

Notes

3075 The persecuting emperors. Compare Prolegomena, Life.
3076 He was brought up with Diocletian and Galerius. Compare Prolegomena, Life.
3077 Constantius Chlorus, Neo-Platonist and philanthropist. Compare following description.
3078 The author of the chapter heading means of course Galerius. Maxentius was not emperor until after the death of Constantius.
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At a time when four emperors3079 shared the administration of the Roman empire, Constantius alone, following a course of conduct different from that pursued by his colleagues, entered into the friendship of the Supreme God. For while they besieged and wasted the churches of God, leveling them to the ground, and obliterating the very foundations of the houses of prayer,3080 he kept his hands pure from their
abominable impiety, and never in any respect resembled them. They polluted their provinces by the indiscriminate slaughter of godly men and women; but he kept his soul free from the stain of this crime.3081 They, involved in the mazes of impious idolatry, enthralled first themselves, and then all under their authority, in bondage to the errors of evil demons, while he at the same time originated the profoundest peace throughout his dominions, and secured to his subjects the privilege of celebrating without hindrance the worship of God. In short, while his colleagues oppressed all men by the most grievous exactions, and rendered their lives intolerable, and even worse than death, Constantius alone governed his people with a mild and tranquil sway, and exhibited towards them
a truly parental and fostering care. Numberless, indeed, are the other virtues of this man, which are the theme of praise to all; of these I will record one or two instances, as specimens of the quality of those which I must pass by in silence, and then I will proceed to the appointed order of my narrative.
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Chapter XIV.—How Constantius his Father, being reproached with Poverty by Diocletian, filled his Treasury, and afterwards restored the Money to those by whom it had been contributed. In consequence of the many reports in circulation respecting this prince, describing his kindness and gentleness of character, and the extraordinary elevation of his piety, alleging too, that by reason of his extreme indulgence to his subjects, he had not even a supply of money laid up in his treasury; the emperor who at that time occupied the place of supreme power sent to reprehend his neglect of the public weal, at the same time reproaching him with poverty, and alleging in proof of the charge the empty state of his treasury. On this he desired the messengers of the emperor to remain with him awhile, and, calling together the wealthiest of his subjects of all nations under his dominion, he informed them that he was in want of money, and that this was the time for them all to give a voluntary proof of their affection for their prince.
As soon as they heard this (as though they had long been desirous of an opportunity for showing the sincerity of their good will), with zealous alacrity they filled the treasury with gold and silver and other wealth; each eager to surpass the rest in the amount of his contribution: and this they did with cheerful and joyous countenances. And now Constantius desired the messengers of the great emperor3082 personally to inspect his treasures, and directed them to give a faithful report of what

Notes:

3079 [Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius.—Bag.]
3080 For account of these persecutions, see Church History, Bk. 8, and notes of McGiffert.
3081 Compare the Church History, 8. 13, and Lactantius, De mort. pers. 15. The latter says he allowed buildings to be destroyed, but spared human life.
3082 Or the senior Augustus. “Diocletian is thus entitled in the ancient panegyrists and in inscriptions.”—Heinichen. It was “towards the end of the second century of the Christian era” that there began to be a plurality of Augusti, but “from this time we find two or even a greater number of Augusti; and though in that and in all similar cases the persons honored with the title were regarded

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NPNF (V2-01) Eusebius Pamphilius they had seen; adding, that on the present occasion he had taken this money into his own hands, but that it had long been kept for his use in the custody of the owners, as securely as if under the charge of faithful treasurers. The ambassadors were overwhelmed with astonishment at what they had witnessed: and on their departure it is said that the truly generous prince sent for the owners of the property, and, after commending them severally for their obedience and true loyalty, restored it all, and bade them return to their homes. This one circumstance, then, conveys a proof of the generosity of him whose character we are attempting to illustrate: another will contain the clearest testimony to his piety.

Chapter XV.—Of the Persecution raised by his Colleagues. By command of the supreme authorities of the empire, the governors of the several provinces had set on foot a general persecution of the godly. Indeed, it was from the imperial courts themselves that the very first of the pious martyrs proceeded, who passed through those conflicts for the faith, and most readily endured both fire and sword, and the depths of the sea; every form of death, in short, so that in a brief time all the royal palaces were bereft of pious men.3083 The result was, that the authors of this wickedness were entirely deprived of the protecting care of God, since by their persecution of his worshipers they at the same time silenced the prayers that were wont to be made on their own behalf.

Chapter XVI.—How Constantius, feigning Idolatry, expelled those who consented to offer Sacrifice, but retained in his Palace all who were willing to confess Christ. On the other hand, Constantius conceived an expedient full of sagacity, and did a thing which sounds paradoxical, but in fact was most admirable. He made a proposal to all the officers of his court, including even those in the highest stations of authority, offering them the following alternative: either that they should offer sacrifice to demons, and thus be permitted to remain with him, and enjoy their usual honors; or, in case of refusal, that they should be shut out from all access to his person, and entirely disqualified from acquaintance and association with him. Accordingly, when they had individually made their choice, some one way and some the other; and the choice of each had been ascertained, then this admirable prince disclosed the secret meaning of his expedient, and condemned the cowardice and selfishness of the one party, while he highly commended the other for their conscientious devotion to God. He declared, too, that those who had been false to their God must be unworthy of the confidence of their prince; for how was it possible that they should preserve their fidelity to him, who had proved themselves faithless to a higher power? He determined, therefore, that such persons should be removed altogether from the imperial court, while, on the other hand, declaring that those men as participators of the imperial power, still the one who received the title first was looked upon as the head of the empire.”—Smith, Dict.
Gr. and Rom. Ant.

Note

3083 Compare accounts of martyrs in the palaces, in the Church History, 8. 6.
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who, in bearing witness for the truth, had proved themselves to be worthy servants of God, would manifest the same fidelity to their king, he entrusted them with the guardianship of his person and empire, saying that he was bound to treat such persons with special regard as his nearest and most valued friends, and to esteem them far more highly than the richest treasures.

Chapter XVII.—Of his Christian Manner of Life.
The father of Constantine, then, is said to have possessed such a character as we have briefly described. And what kind of death was vouchsafed to him in consequence of such devotion to God, and how far he whom he honored made his lot to differ from that of his colleagues in the empire, may be known to any one who will give his attention to the circumstances of the case. For after he had for a long time given many proofs of royal virtue, in acknowledging the Supreme God alone, and condemning the polytheism of the ungodly, and had fortified his household by the prayers of holy men,3084 he passed the remainder of his life in remarkable repose and tranquillity, in the enjoyment of what is counted blessedness,—neither molesting others nor being molested ourselves.      Accordingly, during the whole course of his quiet and peaceful reign, he dedicated his entire household, his children, his wife, and domestic attendants, to the One Supreme God: so that the company assembled within the walls of his palace differed in no respect from a church of God; wherein were also to be found his ministers, who offered continual supplications on behalf of their prince, and this at a time when, with most,3085 it was not allowable to have any dealings with the worshipers of God, even so far as to exchange a word with them.

Chapter XVIII.—That after the Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, Constantius became Chief Augustus, and was blessed with a Numerous Offspring. The immediate consequence of this conduct was a recompense from the hand of God, insomuch that he came into the supreme authority of the empire. For the older emperors, for some unknown reason, resigned their power; and this sudden change took place in the first year after their persecution of the churches.3086
From that time Constantius alone received the honors of chief Augustus, having been previously, indeed, distinguished by the diadem of the imperial Cæsars,3087 among whom he held the first rank; but after his worth had been proved in this capacity, he was invested with the highest dignity of the Roman empire, being named chief Augustus of the four who were afterwards elected to that

Notes:

3084 “Is said to have” is added conjecturally here by an earlier editor, but Heinichen omits, as it would seem Eusebius himself did.
3085 Other readings are “with the others,” or “with the rest,” but in whatever reading it refers to all the other emperors.
3086 The persecution was in 303 or 304. Compare discussion of date in Clinton, Fasti Rom. ann. 303–305. The abdication was in 305.
3087 Eusebius uses the terms Augustus, king, autocrat, and Cæsar with a good deal of interchangeableness. It is hard to tell sometimes whether king (βασιλεύς) means emperor or Cæsar. In general, Augustus has been transferred in translations, and king and autocrat both rendered emperor, which seems to be his real usage.
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honor. Moreover, he surpassed most of the emperors in regard to the number of his family, having gathered around him a very large circle of children both male and female. And, lastly, when he had attained to a happy old age, and was about to pay the common debt of nature, and exchange this life for another, God once more manifested His power in a special manner on his behalf, by providing that his eldest son Constantine should be present during his last moments, and ready to receive the imperial power from his hands.3088

Chapter XIX.—Of his Son Constantine, who in his Youth accompanied Diocletian into Palestine. The latter had been with his father’s imperial colleagues,3089 and had passed his life among them, as we have said, like God’s ancient prophet. And even in the very earliest period of his youth he was judged by them to be worthy of the highest honor. An instance of this we have ourselves seen, when he passed through Palestine with the senior emperor,3090 at whose right hand he stood, and commanded the admiration of all who beheld him by the indications he gave even then of royal greatness. For no one was comparable to him for grace and beauty of person, or height of stature; and he so far surpassed his compeers in personal strength as to be a terror to them. He was, however,
even more conspicuous for the excellence of his mental3091 qualities than for his superior physical endowments; being gifted in the first place with a sound judgment,3092 and having also reaped the

488
advantages of a liberal education. He was also distinguished in no ordinary degree both by natural intelligence and divinely imparted wisdom.

Chapter XX.—Flight of Constantine to his Father because of the Plots of Diocletian.
3093 The emperors then in power, observing his manly and vigorous figure and superior mind, were moved with feelings of jealousy and fear, and thenceforward carefully watched for an opportunity of inflicting some brand of disgrace on his character. But the young man, being aware of their designs, the details of which, through the providence of God, more than once came to him, sought safety in flight;3094 in this respect again keeping up his resemblance to the great prophet Moses. Indeed, in every sense God was his helper; and he had before ordained that he should be present in readiness to succeed his father.

Notes:

3088 Constantine reached him just before his death, though possibly some weeks before. Compare Prolegomena.
3089 Diocletian and Galerius.
3090 Diocletian. He was on his way to Egypt in the famous campaign against Achilleus in 296–297.
3091 Or “psychical,” meaning more than intellectual.
3092 Rather, perhaps, “self-control.”
3093 Eusebius himself speaks in the plural, and other writers speak of plots by both Diocletian and Galerius. Compare
Prolegomena.
3094 Compare detailed account in Lactantius, De M. P. c. 24.
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Chapter XXI.—Death of Constantius, who leaves his Son Constantine Emperor.3095
Immediately, therefore, on his escape from the plots which had been thus insidiously laid for him, he made his way with all haste to his father, and arrived at length at the very time that he was lying at the point of death.3096 As soon as Constantius saw his son thus unexpectedly in his presence, he leaped from his couch, embraced him tenderly, and, declaring that the only anxiety which had troubled him in the prospect of death, namely, that caused by the absence of his son, was now removed, he rendered thanks to God, saying that he now thought death better than the longest life,3097 and at once completed the arrangement of his private affairs. Then, taking a final leave of the circle of sons and daughters by whom he was surrounded, in his own palace, and on the imperial couch, he bequeathed the empire, according to the law of nature,3098 to his eldest son, and breathed his last.

Chapter XXII.—How, after the Burial of Constantius, Constantine was Proclaimed Augustus by the Army. Nor did the imperial throne remain long unoccupied: for Constantine invested himself with his father’s purple, and proceeded from his father’s palace, presenting to all a renewal, as it were, in his own person, of his father’s life and reign. He then conducted the funeral procession in company with his father’s friends, some preceding, others following the train, and performed the last offices for the pious deceased with an extraordinary degree of magnificence, and all united in honoring this thrice blessed prince with acclamations and praises, and while with one mind and voice, they glorified the rule of the son as a living again of him who was dead, they hastened at once to hail their new sovereign by the titles of Imperial and Worshipful Augustus, with joyful shouts.3099 Thus the memory of the deceased emperor received honor from the praises bestowed upon his son, while the latter was pronounced blessed in being the successor of such a father. All the nations also under his dominion were filled with joy and inexpressible gladness at not being even for a moment deprived of the benefits of a well ordered government. In the instance of the Emperor Constantius, God has made manifest to our generation what the end of those is who in their lives have honored and loved him.

Notes:

3095 Βασιλεύς. The writer of the chapter headings uses this word here and Augustus in the following chapter, but it does not seem to mean technically “Cæsar,” and so the rendering emperor is retained.
3096 This seems to imply that Constantine reached him only after he was sick in bed, i.e. at York in Britain; but other accounts make it probable that he joined him at Boulogne before he sailed on this last expedition to Britain. Compare Prolegomena.
3097 Literally, “than immortality [on earth].”
3098 It will hardly be agreed that imperial succession is a law of nature anyway. Rather, “the succession [where it exists] is established by the express will or the tacit consent of the nation,” and the “pretended proprietary right…is a chimera” (Vattell, Law of Nations, Phila., 1867, p. 24, 25). That primogeniture is a natural law has been often urged, but it seems to be simply the law of first come first served. The English custom of primogeniture is said to have risen from the fact that in feudal times the eldest son was the one who, at the time of the father’s death, was of an age to meet the duties of feudal tenure (compare Kent, Commentaries, Boston, 1867, v. 4, p. 420, 421). This is precisely the fact respecting Constantine. His several brothers were all too young to be thought of.
3099 The verdict was not confirmed at once. Galerius refused him the title of emperor, and he contented himself with that of
Cæsar for a little. Compare Prolegomena.
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Chapter XXIII.—A Brief Notice of the Destruction of the Tyrants. With respect to the other princes, who made war against the churches of God, I have not thought it fit in the present work to give any account of their downfall,3100 nor to stain the memory of the good by mentioning them in connection with those of an opposite character. The knowledge of the facts themselves will of itself suffice for the wholesome admonition of those who have witnessed or heard of the evils which severally befell them.
489

Chapter XXIV.—It was by the Will of God that Constantine became possessed of the Empire. Thus then the God of all, the Supreme Governor of the whole universe, by his own will appointed Constantine, the descendant of so renowned a parent, to be prince and sovereign: so that, while others have been raised to this distinction by the election of their fellow-men, he is the only one to whose elevation no mortal may boast of having contributed.

 

Chapter XXV.—Victories of Constantine over the Barbarians and the Britons.
As soon then as he was established on the throne, he began to care for the interests of his paternal inheritance, and visited with much considerate kindness all those provinces which had previously been under his father’s government. Some tribes of the barbarians who dwelt on the banks of the Rhine, and the shores of the Western ocean, having ventured to revolt, he reduced them all to obedience, and brought them from their savage state to one of gentleness. He contented himself with checking the inroads of others, and drove from his dominions, like untamed and savage beasts, those whom he perceived to be altogether incapable of the settled order of civilized life.3101 Having disposed of these affairs to his satisfaction, he directed his attention to other quarters of the world, and first passed over to the British nations,3102 which lie in the very bosom of the ocean. These he reduced to submission, and then proceeded to consider the state of the remaining portions of the empire, that he might be ready to tender his aid wherever circumstances might require it.

Chapter XXVI.—How he resolved to deliver Rome from Maxentius.
3100 But he has done this himself in his Church History. Compare also Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum.
3101 The Franci, Bructeri, &c.
3102 [Eusebius here speaks of a second expedition of Constantine to Britain, which is not mentioned by other ancient writers;
or he may have been forgetful or ignorant of the fact that Constantine had received the imperial authority in Britain itself,
Constantius having died in his palace at York, a.d. 306. Vide Gibbon’s Decline and Fall, chap. 14.—Bag.] It seems to be a part
of the confusion about his crossing to Britain in the first place.
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While, therefore, he regarded the entire world as one immense body, and perceived that the
head of it all, the royal city of the Roman empire, was bowed down by the weight of a tyrannous
oppression; at first he had left the task of liberation to those who governed the other divisions of
the empire, as being his superiors in point of age. But when none of these proved able to afford
relief, and those who had attempted it had experienced a disastrous termination of their enterprise,3103
he said that life was without enjoyment to him as long as he saw the imperial city thus afflicted,
and prepared himself for the overthrowal of the tyranny.
Chapter XXVII.—That after reflecting on the Downfall of those who had worshiped Idols, he made
Choice of Christianity.
Being convinced, however, that he needed some more powerful aid than his military forces
could afford him, on account of the wicked and magical enchantments which were so diligently
practiced by the tyrant,3104 he sought Divine assistance, deeming the possession of arms and a
numerous soldiery of secondary importance, but believing the co-operating power of Deity invincible
and not to be shaken. He considered, therefore, on what God he might rely for protection and
assistance. While engaged in this enquiry, the thought occurred to him, that, of the many emperors
who had preceded him, those who had rested their hopes in a multitude of gods, and served them
with sacrifices and offerings, had in the first place been deceived by flattering predictions, and
oracles which promised them all prosperity, and at last had met with an unhappy end, while not
one of their gods had stood by to warn them of the impending wrath of heaven; while one alone
who had pursued an entirely opposite course, who had condemned their error, and honored the one
Supreme God during his whole life, had found him to be the Saviour and Protector of his empire,
and the Giver of every good thing. Reflecting on this, and well weighing the fact that they who had
trusted in many gods had also fallen by manifold forms of death, without leaving behind them either
family or offspring, stock, name, or memorial among men: while the God of his father had given
to him, on the other hand, manifestations of his power and very many tokens: and considering
farther that those who had already taken arms against the tyrant, and had marched to the battle-field
under the protection of a multitude of gods, had met with a dishonorable end (for one of them3105
had shamefully retreated from the contest without a blow, and the other,3106 being slain in the midst
490
of his own troops, became, as it were, the mere sport of death3107); reviewing, I say, all these
considerations, he judged it to be folly indeed to join in the idle worship of those who were no
gods, and, after such convincing evidence, to err from the truth; and therefore felt it incumbent on
him to honor his father’s God alone.
3103 Referring to the unsuccessful expeditions of Severus and Galerius.
3104 Compare chapters 36 and 37; also Lactantius, De M. P. chap. 44.
3105 Galerius.
3106 Severus.
3107 This last phrase has exercised the ingenuity of translators greatly. This translation does well enough, though one might
hazard “was easily overcome by death,” or “was an easy victim to death.”
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Chapter XXVIII.—How, while he was praying, God sent him a Vision of a Cross of Light in the
Heavens at Mid-day, with an Inscription admonishing him to conquer by that.
Accordingly he called on him with earnest prayer and supplications that he would reveal to him
who he was, and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present difficulties. And while he
was thus praying with fervent entreaty, a most marvelous sign appeared to him from heaven, the
account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person. But
since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history,3108
when he was honored with his acquaintance and society, and confirmed his statement by an oath,
who could hesitate to accredit the relation, especially since the testimony of after-time has established
its truth? He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his
own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, above the sun, and bearing the inscription,
Conquer by this. At this sight he himself was struck with amazement, and his whole army also,
which followed him on this expedition, and witnessed the miracle.3109
Chapter XXIX.—How the Christ of God appeared to him in his Sleep, and commanded him to use
in his Wars a Standard made in the Form of the Cross.
3108 Note here the care Eusebius takes to throw off the responsibility for the marvelous. It at the same time goes to show the
general credibility of Eusebius, and some doubt in his mind of the exact nature and reality of what he records.
3109 This very circumstantial account has met with doubters from the very beginning, commencing with Eusebius himself.
There are all sorts of explanations, from that of an actual miracle to that of pure later invention. The fact of some, at least
supposed, special divine manifestation at this time can hardly be denied. It is mentioned vaguely by Paneg. 313, and on the
triumphal arch shortly after. It is reported as a dream by Lactantius about the same time with the erection of the arch, and alluded
to in general, but hardly to be doubted, terms by Nazarius in 321. Moreover, it is witnessed to by the fact of the standard of the
cross which was made. As to the real nature of the manifestation, it has been thought to be as recorded by Constantine, and if
so, as perhaps some natural phenomenon of the sun, or to have been a simple dream, or an hallucination. It is hardly profitable
to discuss the possibilities. The lack of contemporary evidence to details and the description of Lactantius as a dream is fatal to
any idea of a miraculous image with inscriptions clearly seen by all. Some cross-like arrangement of the clouds, or a “parahelion,”
or some sort of a suggestion of a cross, may have been seen by all, but evidently there was no definite, vivid, clear perception,
or it would have been in the mouths of all and certainly recorded, or at least it would not have been recorded as something else
by Lactantius. It seems probable that the emperor, thinking intensely, with all the weight of his great problem resting on his
energetic mind, wondering if the Christian God was perhaps the God who could help, saw in some suggestive shape of the clouds
or of sunlight the form of a cross, and there flashed out in his mind in intensest reality the vision of the words, so that for the
moment he was living in the intensest reality of such a vision. His mind had just that intense activity to which such a thing is
possible or actual. It is like Goethe’s famous meeting of his own self. It is that genius power for the realistic representation of
ideal things. This is not the same exactly as “hallucination,” or even “imagination.” The hallucination probably came later when
Constantine gradually represented to himself and finally to Eusebius the vivid idea with its slight ground, as an objective
reality,—a common phenomenon. When the emperor went to sleep, his brain molecules vibrating to the forms of his late intense
thought, he inevitably dreamed, and dreaming naturally confirmed his thought. This does not say that the suggestive form seen,
or the idea itself, and the direction of the dream itself, were not providential and the work of the Holy Spirit, for they were, and
were special in character, and so miraculous (or why do ideas come?); but it is to be feared that Constantine’s own spirit or
something else furnished some of the later details. There is a slight difference of authority as to when and where the vision took
place. The panegyrist seems to make it before leaving Gaul, and Malalas is inaccurate as usual in having it happen in a war
against the barbarians. For farther discussion of the subject see monographs under Literature in the Prolegomena, especially
under the names: Baring, Du Voisin, Fabricius, Girault, Heumann, Jacutius Mamachi, Molinet, St. Victor, Suhr, Toderini,
Weidener, Wernsdorf, Woltereck. The most concise, clear, and admirable supporter of the account of Eusebius, or rather
Constantine, as it stands, is Newman, Miracles (Lond. 1875), 271–286.
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He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what the import of this apparition could be.
And while he continued to ponder and reason on its meaning, night suddenly came on; then in his
sleep the Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in the heavens, and
commanded him to make a likeness of that sign which he had seen in the heavens, and to use it as
a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies.
Chapter XXX.—The Making of the Standard of the Cross.
At dawn of day he arose, and communicated the marvel to his friends: and then, calling together
the workers in gold and precious stones, he sat in the midst of them, and described to them the
figure of the sign he had seen, bidding them represent it in gold and precious stones. And this
representation I myself have had an opportunity of seeing.
Chapter XXXI.—A Description of the Standard of the Cross, which the Romans now call the
Labarum.3110
491
Now it was made in the following manner. A long spear, overlaid with gold, formed the figure
of the cross by means of a transverse bar laid over it. On the top of the whole was fixed a wreath
of gold and precious stones; and within this,3111 the symbol of the Saviour’s name, two letters
indicating the name of Christ by means of its initial characters, the letter P being intersected by X
in its centre:3112 and these letters the emperor was in the habit of wearing on his helmet at a later
period. From the cross-bar of the spear was suspended a cloth,3113 a royal piece, covered with a
profuse embroidery of most brilliant precious stones; and which, being also richly interlaced with
gold, presented an indescribable degree of beauty to the beholder. This banner was of a square
3110 [From the Bretagnic lab, to raise, or from labarva, which, in the Basque language, still signifies a standard.—Riddle’s
Lat. Dict. voc. Labarum. Gibbon declares the derivation and meaning of the word to be “totally unknown, in spite of the efforts
of the critics, who have ineffectually tortured the Latin, Greek, Spanish, Celtic, Teutonic, Illyric, Armenian, &c., in search of
an etymology.”—Decline and Fall, chap. 22, note 33.—Bag.] Compare the full article of Venables, in Smith and Cheetham,
Dict. 1 (1880), 908–911, with its references and cuts.
3111 Thus rather than “on.” Compare cuts in article of Venables. “It [the monogram of Christ] is often set within a crown or
palm branch.”—Wolcott, Sacred Archæalogy, p. 390.
3112
[Χιαζομένου τοῦ ῥ κατὰ τὸ μεσαίτατον. The figure would seem to answer to the description in the text. Gibbon gives two
specimens, and – as engraved from ancient monuments. Chap. 20, note 35.— × Bag.] The various coins given by Venables all have
the usual form of the monogram . Compare also Tyrwhitt, art. × Monogram, in Smith and Cheetham; also the art. Monogramme
du Christ, in Martigny, Dict. d. ant. (1877), 476–483.
3113 That this was no new invention of Constantine may be seen by comparing the following description of an ordinary Roman
standard, “…each cohort had for its own ensign the serpent or dragon, which was woven on a square piece of cloth, elevated on
a gilt staff, to which a cross-bar was adapted for the purpose…under the eagle or other emblem was often placed a head of the
reigning emperor.” Yates, art. Signa militaria, in Smith, Dict. Gr. and Rom. Ant. (1878), 1044–1045.
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form, and the upright staff, whose lower section was of great length,3114 bore a golden half-length
portrait3115 of the pious emperor and his children on its upper part, beneath the trophy of the cross,
and immediately above the embroidered banner.
The emperor constantly made use of this sign of salvation as a safeguard against every adverse
and hostile power, and commanded that others similar to it should be carried at the head of all his
armies.
Chapter XXXII.—How Constantine received Instruction, and read the Sacred Scriptures.
These things were done shortly afterwards. But at the time above specified, being struck with
amazement at the extraordinary vision, and resolving to worship no other God save Him who had
appeared to him, he sent for those who were acquainted with the mysteries of His doctrines, and
enquired who that God was, and what was intended by the sign of the vision he had seen. They
affirmed that He was God, the only begotten Son of the one and only God: that the sign which had
appeared was the symbol of immortality,3116 and the trophy of that victory over death which He had
gained in time past when sojourning on earth. They taught him also the causes of His advent, and
explained to him the true account of His incarnation. Thus he was instructed in these matters, and
was impressed with wonder at the divine manifestation which had been presented to his sight.
Comparing, therefore, the heavenly vision with the interpretation given, he found his judgment
confirmed; and, in the persuasion that the knowledge of these things had been imparted to him by
Divine teaching, he determined thenceforth to devote himself to the reading of the Inspired writings.
Moreover, he made the priests of God his counselors, and deemed it incumbent on him to honor
the God who had appeared to him with all devotion. And after this, being fortified by well-grounded
hopes in Him, he hastened to quench the threatening fire of tyranny.
C

Appendix I: From Eusebius Life of Constantine

His father was
Constantius3077 (and we ought to revive his memory at this time), the most illustrious emperor of
our age; of whose life it is necessary briefly to relate a few particulars, which tell to the honor of
his son.
Chapter XIII.—Of Constantius his Father, who refused to imitate Diocletian, Maximian, and
Maxentius,3078in their Persecution of the Christians.
3074 [Alluding probably to Ecclesiastes xi. 28, “Judge none blessed before his death; for a man shall be known in his children.”
Or, possibly, to the well-known opinion of Solon to the same effect. Vide Herod. i. 32; Aristot. Eth. Nicom. i. II.—Bag.] Compare
also above, chapter 7.
3075 The persecuting emperors. Compare Prolegomena, Life.
3076 He was brought up with Diocletian and Galerius. Compare Prolegomena, Life.
3077 Constantius Chlorus, Neo-Platonist and philanthropist. Compare following description.
3078 The author of the chapter heading means of course Galerius. Maxentius was not emperor until after the death of Constantius.
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At a time when four emperors3079 shared the administration of the Roman empire, Constantius
alone, following a course of conduct different from that pursued by his colleagues, entered into the
friendship of the Supreme God.
For while they besieged and wasted the churches of God, leveling them to the ground, and
obliterating the very foundations of the houses of prayer,3080 he kept his hands pure from their
abominable impiety, and never in any respect resembled them. They polluted their provinces by
the indiscriminate slaughter of godly men and women; but he kept his soul free from the stain of
this crime.3081 They, involved in the mazes of impious idolatry, enthralled first themselves, and then
all under their authority, in bondage to the errors of evil demons, while he at the same time originated
the profoundest peace throughout his dominions, and secured to his subjects the privilege of
celebrating without hindrance the worship of God. In short, while his colleagues oppressed all men
by the most grievous exactions, and rendered their lives intolerable, and even worse than death,
Constantius alone governed his people with a mild and tranquil sway, and exhibited towards them
a truly parental and fostering care. Numberless, indeed, are the other virtues of this man, which are
the theme of praise to all; of these I will record one or two instances, as specimens of the quality
of those which I must pass by in silence, and then I will proceed to the appointed order of my
narrative.
486
Chapter XIV.—How Constantius his Father, being reproached with Poverty by Diocletian, filled
his Treasury, and afterwards restored the Money to those by whom it had been contributed.
In consequence of the many reports in circulation respecting this prince, describing his kindness
and gentleness of character, and the extraordinary elevation of his piety, alleging too, that by reason
of his extreme indulgence to his subjects, he had not even a supply of money laid up in his treasury;
the emperor who at that time occupied the place of supreme power sent to reprehend his neglect
of the public weal, at the same time reproaching him with poverty, and alleging in proof of the
charge the empty state of his treasury. On this he desired the messengers of the emperor to remain
with him awhile, and, calling together the wealthiest of his subjects of all nations under his dominion,
he informed them that he was in want of money, and that this was the time for them all to give a
voluntary proof of their affection for their prince.
As soon as they heard this (as though they had long been desirous of an opportunity for showing
the sincerity of their good will), with zealous alacrity they filled the treasury with gold and silver
and other wealth; each eager to surpass the rest in the amount of his contribution: and this they did
with cheerful and joyous countenances. And now Constantius desired the messengers of the great
emperor3082 personally to inspect his treasures, and directed them to give a faithful report of what
3079 [Diocletian, Maximian, Galerius, and Constantius.—Bag.]
3080 For account of these persecutions, see Church History, Bk. 8, and notes of McGiffert.
3081 Compare the Church History, 8. 13, and Lactantius, De mort. pers. 15. The latter says he allowed buildings to be destroyed,
but spared human life.
3082 Or the senior Augustus. “Diocletian is thus entitled in the ancient panegyrists and in inscriptions.”—Heinichen.
It was “towards the end of the second century of the Christian era” that there began to be a plurality of Augusti, but “from this time
we find two or even a greater number of Augusti; and though in that and in all similar cases the persons honored with the title were regarded
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they had seen; adding, that on the present occasion he had taken this money into his own hands,
but that it had long been kept for his use in the custody of the owners, as securely as if under the
charge of faithful treasurers. The ambassadors were overwhelmed with astonishment at what they
had witnessed: and on their departure it is said that the truly generous prince sent for the owners
of the property, and, after commending them severally for their obedience and true loyalty, restored
it all, and bade them return to their homes.
This one circumstance, then, conveys a proof of the generosity of him whose character we are
attempting to illustrate: another will contain the clearest testimony to his piety.
Chapter XV.—Of the Persecution raised by his Colleagues.
By command of the supreme authorities of the empire, the governors of the several provinces
had set on foot a general persecution of the godly. Indeed, it was from the imperial courts themselves
that the very first of the pious martyrs proceeded, who passed through those conflicts for the faith,
and most readily endured both fire and sword, and the depths of the sea; every form of death, in
short, so that in a brief time all the royal palaces were bereft of pious men.3083 The result was, that
the authors of this wickedness were entirely deprived of the protecting care of God, since by their
persecution of his worshipers they at the same time silenced the prayers that were wont to be made
on their own behalf.
Chapter XVI.—How Constantius, feigning Idolatry, expelled those who consented to offer Sacrifice,
but retained in his Palace all who were willing to confess Christ.
On the other hand, Constantius conceived an expedient full of sagacity, and did a thing which
sounds paradoxical, but in fact was most admirable.
He made a proposal to all the officers of his court, including even those in the highest stations
of authority, offering them the following alternative: either that they should offer sacrifice to demons,
and thus be permitted to remain with him, and enjoy their usual honors; or, in case of refusal, that
they should be shut out from all access to his person, and entirely disqualified from acquaintance
and association with him. Accordingly, when they had individually made their choice, some one
way and some the other; and the choice of each had been ascertained, then this admirable prince
disclosed the secret meaning of his expedient, and condemned the cowardice and selfishness of the
one party, while he highly commended the other for their conscientious devotion to God. He
declared, too, that those who had been false to their God must be unworthy of the confidence of
their prince; for how was it possible that they should preserve their fidelity to him, who had proved
themselves faithless to a higher power? He determined, therefore, that such persons should be
removed altogether from the imperial court, while, on the other hand, declaring that those men
as participators of the imperial power, still the one who received the title first was looked upon as the head of the empire.”—Smith, Dict.
Gr. and Rom. Ant.
3083 Compare accounts of martyrs in the palaces, in the Church History, 8. 6.
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487
who, in bearing witness for the truth, had proved themselves to be worthy servants of God, would
manifest the same fidelity to their king, he entrusted them with the guardianship of his person and
empire, saying that he was bound to treat such persons with special regard as his nearest and most
valued friends, and to esteem them far more highly than the richest treasures.
Chapter XVII.—Of his Christian Manner of Life.
The father of Constantine, then, is said to have possessed such a character as we have briefly
described. And what kind of death was vouchsafed to him in consequence of such devotion to God,
and how far he whom he honored made his lot to differ from that of his colleagues in the empire,
may be known to any one who will give his attention to the circumstances of the case. For after he
had for a long time given many proofs of royal virtue, in acknowledging the Supreme God alone,
and condemning the polytheism of the ungodly, and had fortified his household by the prayers of
holy men,3084 he passed the remainder of his life in remarkable repose and tranquillity, in the
enjoyment of what is counted blessedness,—neither molesting others nor being molested ourselves.
Accordingly, during the whole course of his quiet and peaceful reign, he dedicated his entire
household, his children, his wife, and domestic attendants, to the One Supreme God: so that the
company assembled within the walls of his palace differed in no respect from a church of God;
wherein were also to be found his ministers, who offered continual supplications on behalf of their
prince, and this at a time when, with most,3085 it was not allowable to have any dealings with the
worshipers of God, even so far as to exchange a word with them.
Chapter XVIII.—That after the Abdication of Diocletian and Maximian, Constantius became Chief
Augustus, and was blessed with a Numerous Offspring.
The immediate consequence of this conduct was a recompense from the hand of God, insomuch
that he came into the supreme authority of the empire. For the older emperors, for some unknown
reason, resigned their power; and this sudden change took place in the first year after their persecution
of the churches.3086
From that time Constantius alone received the honors of chief Augustus, having been previously,
indeed, distinguished by the diadem of the imperial Cæsars,3087 among whom he held the first rank;
but after his worth had been proved in this capacity, he was invested with the highest dignity of
the Roman empire, being named chief Augustus of the four who were afterwards elected to that
3084 “Is said to have” is added conjecturally here by an earlier editor, but Heinichen omits, as it would seem Eusebius himself
did.
3085 Other readings are “with the others,” or “with the rest,” but in whatever reading it refers to all the other emperors.
3086 The persecution was in 303 or 304. Compare discussion of date in Clinton, Fasti Rom. ann. 303–305. The abdication was
in 305.
3087 Eusebius uses the terms Augustus, king, autocrat, and Cæsar with a good deal of interchangeableness. It is hard to tell
sometimes whether king (βασιλεύς) means emperor or Cæsar. In general, Augustus has been transferred in translations, and king
and autocrat both rendered emperor, which seems to be his real usage.
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honor. Moreover, he surpassed most of the emperors in regard to the number of his family, having
gathered around him a very large circle of children both male and female. And, lastly, when he had
attained to a happy old age, and was about to pay the common debt of nature, and exchange this
life for another, God once more manifested His power in a special manner on his behalf, by providing
that his eldest son Constantine should be present during his last moments, and ready to receive the
imperial power from his hands.3088
Chapter XIX.—Of his Son Constantine, who in his Youth accompanied Diocletian into Palestine.
The latter had been with his father’s imperial colleagues,3089 and had passed his life among them,
as we have said, like God’s ancient prophet. And even in the very earliest period of his youth he
was judged by them to be worthy of the highest honor. An instance of this we have ourselves seen,
when he passed through Palestine with the senior emperor,3090 at whose right hand he stood, and
commanded the admiration of all who beheld him by the indications he gave even then of royal
greatness. For no one was comparable to him for grace and beauty of person, or height of stature;
and he so far surpassed his compeers in personal strength as to be a terror to them. He was, however,
even more conspicuous for the excellence of his mental3091 qualities than for his superior physical
endowments; being gifted in the first place with a sound judgment,3092 and having also reaped the
488
advantages of a liberal education. He was also distinguished in no ordinary degree both by natural
intelligence and divinely imparted wisdom.
Chapter XX.—Flight of Constantine to his Father because of the Plots of Diocletian.
3093
The emperors then in power, observing his manly and vigorous figure and superior mind, were
moved with feelings of jealousy and fear, and thenceforward carefully watched for an opportunity
of inflicting some brand of disgrace on his character. But the young man, being aware of their
designs, the details of which, through the providence of God, more than once came to him, sought
safety in flight;3094 in this respect again keeping up his resemblance to the great prophet Moses.
Indeed, in every sense God was his helper; and he had before ordained that he should be present
in readiness to succeed his father.
3088 Constantine reached him just before his death, though possibly some weeks before. Compare Prolegomena.
3089 Diocletian and Galerius.
3090 Diocletian. He was on his way to Egypt in the famous campaign against Achilleus in 296–297.
3091 Or “psychical,” meaning more than intellectual.
3092 Rather, perhaps, “self-control.”
3093 Eusebius himself speaks in the plural, and other writers speak of plots by both Diocletian and Galerius. Compare
Prolegomena.
3094 Compare detailed account in Lactantius, De M. P. c. 24.
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Chapter XXI.—Death of Constantius, who leaves his Son Constantine Emperor.3095
Immediately, therefore, on his escape from the plots which had been thus insidiously laid for
him, he made his way with all haste to his father, and arrived at length at the very time that he was
lying at the point of death.3096 As soon as Constantius saw his son thus unexpectedly in his presence,
he leaped from his couch, embraced him tenderly, and, declaring that the only anxiety which had
troubled him in the prospect of death, namely, that caused by the absence of his son, was now
removed, he rendered thanks to God, saying that he now thought death better than the longest
life,3097 and at once completed the arrangement of his private affairs. Then, taking a final leave of
the circle of sons and daughters by whom he was surrounded, in his own palace, and on the imperial
couch, he bequeathed the empire, according to the law of nature,3098 to his eldest son, and breathed
his last.
Chapter XXII.—How, after the Burial of Constantius, Constantine was Proclaimed Augustus by
the Army.
Nor did the imperial throne remain long unoccupied: for Constantine invested himself with his
father’s purple, and proceeded from his father’s palace, presenting to all a renewal, as it were, in
his own person, of his father’s life and reign. He then conducted the funeral procession in company
with his father’s friends, some preceding, others following the train, and performed the last offices
for the pious deceased with an extraordinary degree of magnificence, and all united in honoring
this thrice blessed prince with acclamations and praises, and while with one mind and voice, they
glorified the rule of the son as a living again of him who was dead, they hastened at once to hail
their new sovereign by the titles of Imperial and Worshipful Augustus, with joyful shouts.3099 Thus
the memory of the deceased emperor received honor from the praises bestowed upon his son, while
the latter was pronounced blessed in being the successor of such a father. All the nations also under
his dominion were filled with joy and inexpressible gladness at not being even for a moment
deprived of the benefits of a well ordered government.
In the instance of the Emperor Constantius, God has made manifest to our generation what the
end of those is who in their lives have honored and loved him.
3095 Βασιλεύς. The writer of the chapter headings uses this word here and Augustus in the following chapter, but it does not
seem to mean technically “Cæsar,” and so the rendering emperor is retained.
3096 This seems to imply that Constantine reached him only after he was sick in bed, i.e. at York in Britain; but other accounts
make it probable that he joined him at Boulogne before he sailed on this last expedition to Britain. Compare Prolegomena.
3097 Literally, “than immortality [on earth].”
3098 It will hardly be agreed that imperial succession is a law of nature anyway. Rather, “the succession [where it exists] is
established by the express will or the tacit consent of the nation,” and the “pretended proprietary right…is a chimera” (Vattell,
Law of Nations, Phila., 1867, p. 24, 25). That primogeniture is a natural law has been often urged, but it seems to be simply the
law of first come first served. The English custom of primogeniture is said to have risen from the fact that in feudal times the
eldest son was the one who, at the time of the father’s death, was of an age to meet the duties of feudal tenure (compare Kent,
Commentaries, Boston, 1867, v. 4, p. 420, 421). This is precisely the fact respecting Constantine. His several brothers were all
too young to be thought of.
3099 The verdict was not confirmed at once. Galerius refused him the title of emperor, and he contented himself with that of
Cæsar for a little. Compare Prolegomena.
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Chapter XXIII.—A Brief Notice of the Destruction of the Tyrants.
With respect to the other princes, who made war against the churches of God, I have not thought
it fit in the present work to give any account of their downfall,3100 nor to stain the memory of the
good by mentioning them in connection with those of an opposite character. The knowledge of the
facts themselves will of itself suffice for the wholesome admonition of those who have witnessed
or heard of the evils which severally befell them.
489
Chapter XXIV.—It was by the Will of God that Constantine became possessed of the Empire.
Thus then the God of all, the Supreme Governor of the whole universe, by his own will appointed
Constantine, the descendant of so renowned a parent, to be prince and sovereign: so that, while
others have been raised to this distinction by the election of their fellow-men, he is the only one to
whose elevation no mortal may boast of having contributed.
Chapter XXV.—Victories of Constantine over the Barbarians and the Britons.
As soon then as he was established on the throne, he began to care for the interests of his paternal
inheritance, and visited with much considerate kindness all those provinces which had previously
been under his father’s government. Some tribes of the barbarians who dwelt on the banks of the
Rhine, and the shores of the Western ocean, having ventured to revolt, he reduced them all to
obedience, and brought them from their savage state to one of gentleness. He contented himself
with checking the inroads of others, and drove from his dominions, like untamed and savage beasts,
those whom he perceived to be altogether incapable of the settled order of civilized life.3101 Having
disposed of these affairs to his satisfaction, he directed his attention to other quarters of the world,
and first passed over to the British nations,3102 which lie in the very bosom of the ocean. These he
reduced to submission, and then proceeded to consider the state of the remaining portions of the
empire, that he might be ready to tender his aid wherever circumstances might require it.
Chapter XXVI.—How he resolved to deliver Rome from Maxentius.
3100 But he has done this himself in his Church History. Compare also Lactantius, De mortibus persecutorum.
3101 The Franci, Bructeri, &c.
3102 [Eusebius here speaks of a second expedition of Constantine to Britain, which is not mentioned by other ancient writers;
or he may have been forgetful or ignorant of the fact that Constantine had received the imperial authority in Britain itself,
Constantius having died in his palace at York, a.d. 306. Vide Gibbon’s Decline and Fall, chap. 14.—Bag.] It seems to be a part
of the confusion about his crossing to Britain in the first place.
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While, therefore, he regarded the entire world as one immense body, and perceived that the
head of it all, the royal city of the Roman empire, was bowed down by the weight of a tyrannous
oppression; at first he had left the task of liberation to those who governed the other divisions of
the empire, as being his superiors in point of age. But when none of these proved able to afford
relief, and those who had attempted it had experienced a disastrous termination of their enterprise,3103
he said that life was without enjoyment to him as long as he saw the imperial city thus afflicted,
and prepared himself for the overthrowal of the tyranny.
Chapter XXVII.—That after reflecting on the Downfall of those who had worshiped Idols, he made
Choice of Christianity.
Being convinced, however, that he needed some more powerful aid than his military forces
could afford him, on account of the wicked and magical enchantments which were so diligently
practiced by the tyrant,3104 he sought Divine assistance, deeming the possession of arms and a
numerous soldiery of secondary importance, but believing the co-operating power of Deity invincible
and not to be shaken. He considered, therefore, on what God he might rely for protection and
assistance. While engaged in this enquiry, the thought occurred to him, that, of the many emperors
who had preceded him, those who had rested their hopes in a multitude of gods, and served them
with sacrifices and offerings, had in the first place been deceived by flattering predictions, and
oracles which promised them all prosperity, and at last had met with an unhappy end, while not
one of their gods had stood by to warn them of the impending wrath of heaven; while one alone
who had pursued an entirely opposite course, who had condemned their error, and honored the one
Supreme God during his whole life, had found him to be the Saviour and Protector of his empire,
and the Giver of every good thing. Reflecting on this, and well weighing the fact that they who had
trusted in many gods had also fallen by manifold forms of death, without leaving behind them either
family or offspring, stock, name, or memorial among men: while the God of his father had given
to him, on the other hand, manifestations of his power and very many tokens: and considering
farther that those who had already taken arms against the tyrant, and had marched to the battle-field
under the protection of a multitude of gods, had met with a dishonorable end (for one of them3105
had shamefully retreated from the contest without a blow, and the other,3106 being slain in the midst
490
of his own troops, became, as it were, the mere sport of death3107); reviewing, I say, all these
considerations, he judged it to be folly indeed to join in the idle worship of those who were no
gods, and, after such convincing evidence, to err from the truth; and therefore felt it incumbent on
him to honor his father’s God alone.
3103 Referring to the unsuccessful expeditions of Severus and Galerius.
3104 Compare chapters 36 and 37; also Lactantius, De M. P. chap. 44.
3105 Galerius.
3106 Severus.
3107 This last phrase has exercised the ingenuity of translators greatly. This translation does well enough, though one might
hazard “was easily overcome by death,” or “was an easy victim to death.”
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Chapter XXVIII.—How, while he was praying, God sent him a Vision of a Cross of Light in the
Heavens at Mid-day, with an Inscription admonishing him to conquer by that.
Accordingly he called on him with earnest prayer and supplications that he would reveal to him
who he was, and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present difficulties. And while he
was thus praying with fervent entreaty, a most marvelous sign appeared to him from heaven, the
account of which it might have been hard to believe had it been related by any other person. But
since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history,3108
when he was honored with his acquaintance and society, and confirmed his statement by an oath,
who could hesitate to accredit the relation, especially since the testimony of after-time has established
its truth? He said that about noon, when the day was already beginning to decline, he saw with his
own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens, above the sun, and bearing the inscription,
Conquer by this. At this sight he himself was struck with amazement, and his whole army also,
which followed him on this expedition, and witnessed the miracle.3109
Chapter XXIX.—How the Christ of God appeared to him in his Sleep, and commanded him to use
in his Wars a Standard made in the Form of the Cross.
3108 Note here the care Eusebius takes to throw off the responsibility for the marvelous. It at the same time goes to show the
general credibility of Eusebius, and some doubt in his mind of the exact nature and reality of what he records.
3109 This very circumstantial account has met with doubters from the very beginning, commencing with Eusebius himself.
There are all sorts of explanations, from that of an actual miracle to that of pure later invention. The fact of some, at least
supposed, special divine manifestation at this time can hardly be denied. It is mentioned vaguely by Paneg. 313, and on the
triumphal arch shortly after. It is reported as a dream by Lactantius about the same time with the erection of the arch, and alluded
to in general, but hardly to be doubted, terms by Nazarius in 321. Moreover, it is witnessed to by the fact of the standard of the
cross which was made. As to the real nature of the manifestation, it has been thought to be as recorded by Constantine, and if
so, as perhaps some natural phenomenon of the sun, or to have been a simple dream, or an hallucination. It is hardly profitable
to discuss the possibilities. The lack of contemporary evidence to details and the description of Lactantius as a dream is fatal to
any idea of a miraculous image with inscriptions clearly seen by all. Some cross-like arrangement of the clouds, or a “parahelion,”
or some sort of a suggestion of a cross, may have been seen by all, but evidently there was no definite, vivid, clear perception,
or it would have been in the mouths of all and certainly recorded, or at least it would not have been recorded as something else
by Lactantius. It seems probable that the emperor, thinking intensely, with all the weight of his great problem resting on his
energetic mind, wondering if the Christian God was perhaps the God who could help, saw in some suggestive shape of the clouds
or of sunlight the form of a cross, and there flashed out in his mind in intensest reality the vision of the words, so that for the
moment he was living in the intensest reality of such a vision. His mind had just that intense activity to which such a thing is
possible or actual. It is like Goethe’s famous meeting of his own self. It is that genius power for the realistic representation of
ideal things. This is not the same exactly as “hallucination,” or even “imagination.” The hallucination probably came later when
Constantine gradually represented to himself and finally to Eusebius the vivid idea with its slight ground, as an objective
reality,—a common phenomenon. When the emperor went to sleep, his brain molecules vibrating to the forms of his late intense
thought, he inevitably dreamed, and dreaming naturally confirmed his thought. This does not say that the suggestive form seen,
or the idea itself, and the direction of the dream itself, were not providential and the work of the Holy Spirit, for they were, and
were special in character, and so miraculous (or why do ideas come?); but it is to be feared that Constantine’s own spirit or
something else furnished some of the later details. There is a slight difference of authority as to when and where the vision took
place. The panegyrist seems to make it before leaving Gaul, and Malalas is inaccurate as usual in having it happen in a war
against the barbarians. For farther discussion of the subject see monographs under Literature in the Prolegomena, especially
under the names: Baring, Du Voisin, Fabricius, Girault, Heumann, Jacutius Mamachi, Molinet, St. Victor, Suhr, Toderini,
Weidener, Wernsdorf, Woltereck. The most concise, clear, and admirable supporter of the account of Eusebius, or rather
Constantine, as it stands, is Newman, Miracles (Lond. 1875), 271–286.
740
NPNF (V2-01) Eusebius Pamphilius
He said, moreover, that he doubted within himself what the import of this apparition could be.
And while he continued to ponder and reason on its meaning, night suddenly came on; then in his
sleep the Christ of God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in the heavens, and
commanded him to make a likeness of that sign which he had seen in the heavens, and to use it as
a safeguard in all engagements with his enemies.
Chapter XXX.—The Making of the Standard of the Cross.
At dawn of day he arose, and communicated the marvel to his friends: and then, calling together
the workers in gold and precious stones, he sat in the midst of them, and described to them the
figure of the sign he had seen, bidding them represent it in gold and precious stones. And this
representation I myself have had an opportunity of seeing.
Chapter XXXI.—A Description of the Standard of the Cross, which the Romans now call the
Labarum.3110
491
Now it was made in the following manner. A long spear, overlaid with gold, formed the figure
of the cross by means of a transverse bar laid over it. On the top of the whole was fixed a wreath
of gold and precious stones; and within this,3111 the symbol of the Saviour’s name, two letters
indicating the name of Christ by means of its initial characters, the letter P being intersected by X
in its centre:3112 and these letters the emperor was in the habit of wearing on his helmet at a later
period. From the cross-bar of the spear was suspended a cloth,3113 a royal piece, covered with a
profuse embroidery of most brilliant precious stones; and which, being also richly interlaced with
gold, presented an indescribable degree of beauty to the beholder. This banner was of a square
3110 [From the Bretagnic lab, to raise, or from labarva, which, in the Basque language, still signifies a standard.—Riddle’s
Lat. Dict. voc. Labarum. Gibbon declares the derivation and meaning of the word to be “totally unknown, in spite of the efforts
of the critics, who have ineffectually tortured the Latin, Greek, Spanish, Celtic, Teutonic, Illyric, Armenian, &c., in search of
an etymology.”—Decline and Fall, chap. 22, note 33.—Bag.] Compare the full article of Venables, in Smith and Cheetham,
Dict. 1 (1880), 908–911, with its references and cuts.
3111 Thus rather than “on.” Compare cuts in article of Venables. “It [the monogram of Christ] is often set within a crown or
palm branch.”—Wolcott, Sacred Archæalogy, p. 390.
3112
[Χιαζομένου τοῦ ῥ κατὰ τὸ μεσαίτατον. The figure would seem to answer to the description in the text. Gibbon gives two
specimens, and – as engraved from ancient monuments. Chap. 20, note 35.— × Bag.] The various coins given by Venables all have
the usual form of the monogram . Compare also Tyrwhitt, art. × Monogram, in Smith and Cheetham; also the art. Monogramme
du Christ, in Martigny, Dict. d. ant. (1877), 476–483.
3113 That this was no new invention of Constantine may be seen by comparing the following description of an ordinary Roman
standard, “…each cohort had for its own ensign the serpent or dragon, which was woven on a square piece of cloth, elevated on
a gilt staff, to which a cross-bar was adapted for the purpose…under the eagle or other emblem was often placed a head of the
reigning emperor.” Yates, art. Signa militaria, in Smith, Dict. Gr. and Rom. Ant. (1878), 1044–1045.
741
NPNF (V2-01) Eusebius Pamphilius
form, and the upright staff, whose lower section was of great length,3114 bore a golden half-length
portrait3115 of the pious emperor and his children on its upper part, beneath the trophy of the cross,
and immediately above the embroidered banner.
The emperor constantly made use of this sign of salvation as a safeguard against every adverse
and hostile power, and commanded that others similar to it should be carried at the head of all his
armies.
Chapter XXXII.—How Constantine received Instruction, and read the Sacred Scriptures.
These things were done shortly afterwards. But at the time above specified, being struck with
amazement at the extraordinary vision, and resolving to worship no other God save Him who had
appeared to him, he sent for those who were acquainted with the mysteries of His doctrines, and
enquired who that God was, and what was intended by the sign of the vision he had seen. They
affirmed that He was God, the only begotten Son of the one and only God: that the sign which had
appeared was the symbol of immortality,3116 and the trophy of that victory over death which He had
gained in time past when sojourning on earth. They taught him also the causes of His advent, and
explained to him the true account of His incarnation. Thus he was instructed in these matters, and
was impressed with wonder at the divine manifestation which had been presented to his sight.
Comparing, therefore, the heavenly vision with the interpretation given, he found his judgment
confirmed; and, in the persuasion that the knowledge of these things had been imparted to him by
Divine teaching, he determined thenceforth to devote himself to the reading of the Inspired writings.
Moreover, he made the priests of God his counselors, and deemed it incumbent on him to honor
the God who had appeared to him with all devotion. And after this, being fortified by well-grounded
hopes in Him, he hastened to quench the threatening fire of tyranny.
C

Appendix II : From Wikipedia: The Roman Emperors of the end of the Empire

Const.chlorus01 pushkin.jpgConstantius Chlorus
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTIVSHERCVLIVS AVGVSTVS
(WEST)

March 31, c. 250, DardaniaMoesia Adopted as junior co-emperor (‘Caesar’) and heir by Maximian in 293 May 1, 305 – July 25, 306 1 year, 2 months and 24 days 306 (aged 56)
Natural causes

SEVERUS II RIC VI 76b-2590375 (obverse).jpg

Valerius Severus
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALERIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS
(WEST)

? Adopted as junior co-emperor (‘Caesar’) and heir by Constantius Chlorus in 305; succeeded as Augustus in 306; opposed by Maxentius and Constantine I Summer 306 – March/ April 307 1 year September 16, 307 (aged ?)
Captured by Maxentius and forced to commit suicide (or murdered)Rome-Capitole-StatueConstantin.jpgConstantine the Great
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VALERIVS AVRELIVS CONSTANTINVSAVGVSTVS
(WEST)

then, after 324

(EAST and WEST)

February 27, c. 272, NaissusMoesia Superior Son of Constantius I Chlorus, proclaimed emperor by his father’s troops; accepted as Caesar (west) by Galerius in 306; promoted to Augustus (west) in 307 by Maximian after death of Severus II; refused relegation to Caesar in 309 July 25, 306 – May 22, 337 30 years, 9 months and 27 days May 22, 337 (aged 65)
Natural causesMaxentius02 pushkin.jpgMaxentius
IMPERATOR CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS AVGVSTVS
(WEST)

c. 276 Son of Maximian, seized power in 306 after death of Constantius I Chlorus, in opposition to Severus and Constantine I; made Caesar (west) by Maximian in 307 after the death of Severus October 28, 306 – October 28, 312 6 years October 28, 312 (aged 36)
Died at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, against Constantine I

Aureus of Licinius.pngLicinius I
IMPERATOR CAESAR CAIVS VALERIVS LICINIANVS LICINIVSAVGVSTVS
(EAST)

with

Valerius Valens

AVRELIVS VALERIVS VALENS

and

Martinian

SEXTVS MARCIVSMARTININANVS

c. 263, Felix RomulianaMoesia Superior Son-in-law of Constantius Chlorus, appointed Augustus in the west by Galerius in 308, in opposition to Maxentius; became Augustus in the east in 311 after the death of Galerius (shared with Maximinus II); defeated Maximinus II in civil war to become sole eastern Augustus in 313; appointed Valerius Valens in 317, and Martinian in 324 as western Augustus, in opposition to Constantine, both being executed within weeks. November 11, 308 – September 18, 324 15 years, 10 months and 7 days 325 (aged 61/62)
Defeated in civil war against Constantine I in 324 and captured; executed on the orders of Constantine the next year.

Daza01 pushkin.jpgMaximinus II
IMPERATOR CAESAR CAIVS CALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS
(EAST)

November 20, c. 270, Dacia Aureliana Nephew of Galerius, adopted as Caesar and his heir in 305; succeeded as Augustus (shared with Licinius I) in 311 May 1, 311 – July/August 313 2 yearsJuly/August 313 (aged 42)
Defeated in civil war against Licinius; probably committed suicide thereafterCampidoglio, Roma - Costantino II cesare dettaglio.jpgConstantine II
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVSCONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS
(WEST)

316, ArelateGallia Narbonensis Son of Constantine I; appointed Caesar in 317, succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantius II and Constans I May 22, 337 – 340

3 years 340 (aged 24)
Died in battle against Constans I

Constance II Colosseo Rome Italy.jpg Constantius II
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS
(EAST)

then, after 356

(EAST and WEST)

August 7, 317, SirmiumPannonia Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constans I; sole emperor from 350 May 22, 337 – November 3, 361 24 years, 5 months and 12 days 361 (aged 44)
Natural causes

Emperor Constans Louvre Ma1021.jpg Constans I
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANSAVGVSTVS
(MIDDLE)

then, after 340

(WEST)

c. 323 Son of Constantine I; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constantius II May 22, 337 – 350 13 years 350 (aged 27)
Assassinated on the orders of the usurper Magnentius

Solidus Vetranio (obverse).jpg

Vetranio
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS VETRANIO AVGVSTVS
(WEST)

?, Moesia General of Constans, proclaimed Caesar against Magnentius and temporarily accepted as Augustus of the west by Constantius II. March 1, 350 – December 25, 350 9 months and 24 days c. 356 (aged ?)
As a private citizen, after abdication.

Giuliano l'Apostata, IV secolo, Museo archeologico nazionale, Atene.jpg

Julian
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVSIVLIANVS AVGVSTVS
(WEST)

then, after 361

(EAST and WEST)

331/332, ConstantinopleThracia Cousin of Constantius II; made Caesar of the west in 355; proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 360; sole emperor after the death of Constantius February 360 – June 26, 363 3 years June 26, 363 (aged 31/32)
Mortally wounded in battle

Jovian1.jpgJovian
IMPERATOR CAESAR FLAVIVS IOVIANVS AVGVSTVS
(EAST and WEST)

331, SingidunumMoesia General of Julian’s army; proclaimed emperor by the troops on Julian’s death June 26, 363 – February 17, 364. 7 months and 22 days: February 17, 364 (aged 33)
Natural causes (suffocated on fumes)

Tweets Preserved 2/22/2018

I kind of had a big day yesterday, and the day before. Hope those poor trolls are keeping up! P.S. when you find a guy who gets as much WORK done, producing value, you let me know, eh?

  1. Guenn is Cosby’s great song. Lancelot. Crosby Nash BBC – Guinnevere (2 of 5) via

  2. Crosby, Stills & Nash – “GUINNEVERE” Original Recording with Drums & Bass

  3. 4/4 Thomas Jefferson’s family came from Snowdon- Geoff, Jeff, get it? It goes Merlin Ambosius, Aurelius Ambrosius, Uther, Arthur. At York, Constantine is crowned like 308 A.D, almost 200 yrs before Guenevere, of royal blood.

  4. 3/3 Gildas retreated to Brittany due to the English. One rumor is that he does not write about Arthur because a family member was killed, so he threw books into the sea- hence no one believes. The Welsh then did not write. St Patrick is like 432 A.D, “last” Roman Christian Brits.

  5. On Arthur, a couple tweets below, Thomas Jefferson is Welsch, that is, British, with ancestors from Snowdon, the mountain where Merlin Ambrosius retreated. a later Ambrosius is also the name of the king of the Britons in the 490’s, and Uther was I think his brother.

  6. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Mark A. McDonald

    20 bucks says this is the same chick as in “Operator.” But he can’t forget, so its not a wish in that sense. He died in the plane wreck that year. Shoulda stayed on the ground?

  7. If. Jim Croce – Time in a bottle – 1973

  8. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Ticia Verveer

    Read Geoffrey of Monmouth (1100’s), Nennius (9th c.) and Gildas (5th c.) the wise, “the most ancient British writer.” Its the Welsch or Brits that are way cool. Arthur is real, Gwenevere from York, where Constantius crowned Constantine. Avalon is Gloucester Abbey. Arthur 516-532.

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  9. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Ricky Davila

    Sealed backup copies in the possession of each voter are the additional step necessary. End data collection and targeted interference, or we will never have another free election.

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  10.   Retweeted

    Audrey Hepburn photographed by Larry Fried backstage at Gigi, 1951

  11. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted CNN

    So Marco, Why are Americans not talking? Boycott the Republican Party!

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  12. Anne Applebaum Retweeted Dennis Kokkelink

    thanks to and the Hans Van Mierlo foundation for a great evening!

    Anne Applebaum added,

  13. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted History Lovers Club

    Do you know what the sign “I am a man” means? Declaration, 2nd sentence, with Lincoln on the Dred Scott case.

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  14.   Retweeted

    Today in 1916: The German 5th Army attacks the French 2nd Army north of the historic city of , thus beginning the Battle of Verdun. The battle ends on December 18 with a French victory, but not until after ~300,000 French and German soldiers are killed.

  15. Dude should quit travelling. Move to Colorado.

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  16. Mark A. McDonald

    They’e already switching their stocks to Antidepressant drugs till the storm blows over. No joke.

  17. Fascinating political moment right now, as gun lobby and allies recognize they’re *massively* on the wrong side of public opinion and have to figure out some kind of Houdini trick to escape.

  18. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Marco Rubio

    Ja, “We are a nation of people,”Marco, who know our leaders have a little problem with Russia, and do not get the significance of it YET! But good for at least facing those students, and knowing one cannot know what to say. If the Senate knew, Trump would be impeached TOMORROW

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  19.  

    Arrival of Beaker folk changed Britain forever, ancient DNA study shows

  20.   Retweeted
  21. Boycott the Republican party.

  22.   Retweeted

    Study proves six out of seven dwarves are not Happy

  23. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Jack Van Impe Min.

    Tonight, I saw maybe six drones fly over in formation. That is the fist time I have seen that! I was feeding cats, so I did not have time to sit and watch them.

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  24. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Jack Van Impe Min.

    Jack is the greatest living preacher of whom we know, though Henry up the street is pretty good. (I’d still drink a beer right in his parking lot, if I could drink!)

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  25. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Jack Van Impe Min.

    Jack of course knew Billie Graham. I’v been enjoying the biographical stuff on Graham today. But he would not talk about the revelation, just the gospel, as if setting many things aside to get one thing across to presidents and some in high places.

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  26. …And, those few are probably pre-selected for those who report that they do feel better, disregarding the “side effects! Antidepressants do far more harm than good, and the drug oligarchs (panels of shareholder value algorithmic bank accounts) can stuff them, w some “Abilify.”

  27. Just don’t smoke weed for depression, cause the f’n oligarchs might not be able to control the profits, and its less addictive than coffee! On Antidepressants and the oxford U. study, see the series of tweets below, in order.

  28. The BBC “study” is a fine example of profitable disinformation. Strangely, it tells us what to conclude “proven,” “final” etc, THEN it explains in words most do not hear, about the limited scope of their stupid “study:” -on the average better than nothing + a fake pill 4 few.

  29. On sarcasm: Comedy is based both on an ignorance and knowledge. Hobbes famously noted the satire of ignorance, but there is also a common sense truth at the same time, communicating knowledge. There.

    Leonard Cohen — Suzanne

  30. Leonard Cohen – Bird on the Wire 1979

  31. Leonard Cohen – Famous Blue Raincoat (Audio)

  32. Leonard Cohen – Famous Blue Raincoat (Live)

  33. [sarcasm] Oh, but they meant only a certain kind of depression, “moderate” to “severe,”and admit antidepressants are over-prescribed for “mild’ and “prove” they are more effective on the average than placebos, so a million more need to take them.

  34. [sarcasm] Here is the argument that overcomes the reasoning below on the “proof” final in the “Oxford U.” study addressed below: I am heard by some 20 people, while the drug manufacturers are on BBC. Can you not smell disinformation?

  35. Yeah, someone finally liked my Leonard Cohen tweet! Thanx again!

  36. Now, BBC, do me a study to counter the reasoning that if a bad man, who does not care about others or believe that murder is wrong, then is made to feel suicidal with easy access to guns….[sarcasm] oh, but “all question has been put to rest forever.”

  37. I have one person right here who says antidepressants made her feel suicidal. “Its a side effect, they tell you when you take ’em. They know that, they say it on t.v., its just a side effect. But other drugs make me feel that way, too. Lyrica is another I cannot take…

  38. Sounds like Trump: [sarcasm] “The Nunes memo ends all question of collusion, Russian involvement turning the election, and my being indicted and impeached” TOMORROW!!

  39. Sarcasm: BBC A British study has finally ended all question: Antidepressants are good, and a million more people could benefit from them. I believe they simply asked, do you feel better, short term? W/o checking why these drugs seem to be involved in 100% of one kind of shooting

  40. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Hillary Clinton

    But as usual: USE MIRROR! We must look for the possibility that mr. Florida shooter, in an organization that helped Russia help Trump, did not act entirely alone. With old fashioned detective work, run the hypothesis (which of course MIGHT be wrong).

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  41. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Matt Novak

    INDICT! IMPEACH!! REVOTE!!! Cure the surface by going to the source of the problem. Fix it.

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  42. Michael Skolnik

    Most excellent!

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  43. n ICE is chasing imprisoning and deporting my Chaldeans, etc, we scream, stomp and threaten, and they are still holding my Chaldeans, we know something is terribly wrong. Not to mention the TRUMP IS NOT IMPEACHED YET!!! WE’RE TOO STUPID

  44. Those kids are taking on a bit too much responsibility. Maybe we need to not make them work so hard so soon, Eh? And of course, listen the first time, so they don’t have to keep going. Glad ICE is all over the right priorities today.

  45. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted God

    Nor ignore genuine conspiracies because conspiracy theories are false..

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  46. Theodora Anne Merry Retweeted liveoak1212

    When I was 12, I protested Vietnam. Some of the wisest words come from the mouths of children, some of the most innovative ideas, the bravest acts. Young people are not jaded, tired or easily ignored, as they remind us of our passionate youth.

    Theodora Anne Merry added,

  47. ICE is still holding the 70 Chaldeans for deportation? To placate the “alt right?” REAL justice has real priorities, if we have not been reminded INDICT! IMPEACH!!

  48. Old Joke : Why wasn’t Jesus born in America? They couldn’t find three wise men and a virgin.

  49. At least “they” did not allow “commercial” drones to deliver pizzas.

    Look, Congress needs to pass LAWS that bust crimes using every new technology, especially government abuses, and we are not responding. That has been obvious for well over two years. Fist the damage has to be done, then we begin a process to fix what was obvious. Meanwhile…

  50. Amy Siskind

    Expected guilty plea by Alex Van Der Zwaan tells us at least 3 things: -Mueller knows a lot that we don’t know -Mueller will indict for lying to (should scare any Trump official who was interviewed) -Basically locks in that Gates will plea, which pressures Manafort to flip

    Ted Lieu added,

  51. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Mark A. McDonald

    Or, e could figure out what country- and century he’s in, and make up some britches outa that there red cloth justa hangin thar doin’ nothin’ on ‘is ouse!

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  52. Now that drones can attact us using facial recognition, the hijab will necessarily become fashion. The Berka Boys!

  53. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Brasilmagic

    And they took me away for… 911 has no britches anyway!

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  54. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted tRick Salsman

    St. Jim

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  55. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Ted Lieu

    On the back: I survived the Trump Putin usurpation of 2016-2018

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  56. Mark A. McDonald Retweeted Hamilton Electors

    And to “research” antidepressants involved in the more usual, suicidal form of public anonymous victim shootings. A certain sort may involve antidepressants 100% of the time, a but different, though, from Florida and Las Vegas.

    Mark A. McDonald added,

  57. I just learned that hovering over those imogis, it says what they mean. I invented the peace-sign-with-a-heart-to-make-a-face, that looks like you know who. “The visionary mystic of peace-love”- says Bowie. Jesus hippies, jesus freaks.

  58. BBC: Great, now there may be drones using facial recognition to attack individuals! I want trumpics to pay for the fact that I now get to consider such a thing, and other things, due to their having placed my photo on the internet for the first time, to which I never consented.

  59. Franni here. Since it’s Al’s birthday, and since he’s working so hard, I wanted us to do something special for him.

  60. Democrats and Republicans (used to) have two different views of the common good, the democrats a compassion for the welfare of the many, while the republicans cared more for then wealth or commerce and nobility of the few. The common good appears in two deliberating to a middle.

  61. Again, anything unbelievable is fair game. Data collection, Kaspersky and targeted interference turned far more than 80’000 votes in the swing states.

  62. Do not assume that the Russian goal is this o that small thing, like reading American two dimensional motives into a tyrant. We cannot imagine the bottom of the means or ends. Foreign war, civil war and the destruction of America for world power ends: Tyranny 101.

  63. Ted Lieu Retweeted Michael Holmes

    Over 70 days ago I led a letter with a dozen Members of Congress asking Jared Kushner a simple yes/no question: Did he speak with any foreign nationals about the troubled loan for 666 Fifth Ave? still refuses to answer our simple question. Now we know why.

    Ted Lieu added,

Plato’s Socrates: The Parable of the Ship

  Famously, Socrates has told Glaucon and Adeimantus in Book V of Plato’s Republic (488a-489a) that there would be no rest from ills in the cities unless philosophers rule as kings. Not knowing what philosophy is, or what philosophers are, someone, a Harvard man, has also famously said he would rather be governed by any of the first 20 names selected from the Boston phone book! The point is well taken, especially if these could manage to deliberate together for the common good, especially since we do not happen to have a wise man or woman, nor do we know how to find a genuine philosopher. But through books Five, Six and Seven, Socrates undertakes to explain what a philosopher is, and in doing so, also has occasion to explain the good, or rather the child of the good, as distinct from, but necessary in order to know, the just.

   Socrates explains who the real philosophers are through three images, called the ship, the line and the cave. This, we say, is the peak of all human writing, though certain things written by the apostle John, and perhaps Ezekiel, the Sermon on the Mount, and Genesis, written perhaps by the hand of Noah, Enoch, Abraham and Moses, are also contenders for the highest writing we have.

   As translated by Allan Bloom, Socrates explains:

…So hard is the condition suffered by the most decent men with respect to the cities that there is no single other condition  like it, but I must make my image and apology on their behalf by bringing it together from many sources- as the painters paint goatstags and such things by making mixtures. Conceive something of this kind happening on either many ships or one.  Though the shipowner surpasses everyone on board in height and strength…

The shipowner is the people, or the whole polity.

…he is rather deaf and likewise somewhat shortsighted, and his knowledge of seamanship is pretty much on the same level…

That is true of both the many poor and the few rich, in every city and so in every nation…

…The sailors are quarreling with one another about the piloting, each supposing he ought to pilot, although he has never learned the art and cannot produce his teacher or prove there was a time when he was learning it…

These are the politicians, almost without exception, and the political parties, promoting partisan opinions. Most have never read their own Constitution or the writings of their founders, or this work of Plato on justice, though some have even owned universities. Some have used universities to defraud the elderly, while teaching such topics as real estate scams for profit, calling this virtue and knowledge, provided it is accompanied by good fortune, or luck. And they honor the gambler if he wins or cheats and gets away with cheating, not to mention other ways of making money regardless or law or ethics. And this they call “education.” They hold to the strangest standards of merit regarding rule, such as wealth, good lineage of ancestry, management ability, concern for the many and ability to bring gifts and pleasure, all of which are at best partial.

…Besides this, they claim it isn’t even teachable, and are ready to cut to death the man who says it is teachable…

This is not an exaggeration. Nothing is more common or more comforting than the teaching such as relativism, that there is no knowledge regarding justice or what is right to do, let alone what is right for man or the best way of life and the hierarchy of ends according to nature that is the basis of the right priorities. Socrates was put to death in a case of judicial murder, as told in another of those greatest books, Plato’s Apology. He describes this elsewhere as being like the trial of a doctor by a pastry chef before a jury of children.

…And they are always crowded around the shipowner himself, begging and doing everything so that he’ll turn the rudder over to them. And sometimes, if they fail at persuasion and other men succeed at it, they either kill the others or throw them out of the ship. Enchaining the noble shipowner with mandrake, drink, or something else,…

We have just suffered a very strange Oxy or opioid epidemic, which quite suspiciously has prepared our nation for the subversion of our constitution, and could not have been better devised to that end if it were a conspiracy, as it not only has made us unable to think so as to paralyze our ability to respond, it has fueled the heroin trade and organized crime with the money needed to further the enterprise of taking power.

…they rule the ship,, using what’s in it; drinking and feasting, they sail as such men would be thought likely to sail. Besides this, they praise and call “skilled sailor,” “pilot” and “knower of the ship’s business” the man who is clever at figuring out how they will get rule…

At a certain point about twenty years ago, political science became the study of elections and how to win elections, a sophistry or rhetoric like the subjection of the study of law to forensics, or how to win arguments, even making the weaker argument appear stronger, as promoted by our “adversarial” court system. This study of the campaign adviser took over politics, in part because, it was thought, one would then be employable, assuming this, an illiberal goal, was the end of all education. Those who think this way are indeed like materialists in discussions of metaphysics, as though they do not see the mystery of form at all, or those in politics who can only deliberate ad hominem, arguing that such a person or motive is not worthy of being not be heard. These do not have access to the starting of genuine education or deliberation, and so the resort is power.

…either by persuading or by forcing the shipowner, while the man who is not of this sort they blame as useless. They do not know that for the true pilot, it is necessary to pay careful attention to year, seasons, heaven, stars, winds, and everything that’s proper to the art, if he’s really going to be skilled at ruling a ship. And they don’t suppose it’s possible to acquire the art and practice of how one can get hold of the helm whether the others wish it or not, and at the same time to acquire the pilot’s skill…

Knowledge and rule tend in opposite directions, which is part of the reason that wise rule, or the best regime, is for almost all practical purposes impossible. And as Prospero himself learns, rule requires a great deal of experience, as we have statesmen starting out in the states, while working at this, while necessarily neglecting what would be the necessary studies.

So with such things happening on the ships, don’t you believe that the true pilot will really be called a  stargazer, a prater and useless to them by those who sail on ships run like this…

   Shakespeare’s The Tempest opens with a ship in a storm, and there one sees the legitimate king subjected by the pilot and boatswain in a futile attempt to avoid disaster.

Lyric Commentary: Jeff Lynne, ELO: Can’t Get It Out of My Head

1975   ELO Face The Music

Midnight, on the water

I saw the ocean’s daughter

Walking on a wave’s chicane

Staring as she called my name

 

And I can’t get it out of my head

No I can’t get it out of my head

Now my old world is gone for dead

Cause I can’t get it out of my head

 

Break down / On the shoreline

Can’t move. It’s an ebb tide.

Morning, don’t get here tonight

Searching for her silver light

 

And I can’t get it out of my head…

 Bank Job. In the city.

Robin Hood and William Tell, and Ivanhoe and Lancelot

They don’t envy me.

 

Sitting till the sun goes down

In dreams the world keeps going round and round

And I can’t get it out of my head…

(Lyrics from Songmeanings.com)

  The word is both “chicane” and “she came.” A wave’s chicane would be that white part, or the crest of a wave, good for sailing away upon, referring to a couple other Lynne songs.

   A contributor identified as Junkkillit on Songmeanings.com has by far the best interpretive commentary. He begins: “Midnight on the water describes the setting, place and mood where love can be inflicted.” Then he writes:

…The ocean’s daughter is Venus, the goddess of love who was born from the waves. She is not the object of his infatuation but she is the cause of love occurring between people, similar to Cupid’s role in causing people to fall in love. Chicane in this context means trickery, and the goddess of love, walking on the waves, uses her powers and one is tricked and falls into this helpless condition…In the next line, the goddess called his name and he fell choicelessly in love…”It” is not a particular girl, but love’s situation, which is desperate. This song is about love’s situation…Searching for her silver light- a way to appease the goddess so she may release him from his love trap.

     That is one of the best lyric interpretations I have ever seen- hats off! In Hesiod, Aphrodite, the “girl on the half-shell,” is not exactly a daughter of Ocean, as are Wonder (Thaumus), Iris, Electra, and the “beautifully singing Hesperides.” She is rather born later, of the foam that arose from the genitals of Ouranos, or sky, thrown into the sea by Kronos at the start of the reign of the Titans (175; 190) That is, according the Hesiod, anyway, who thinks “At first chaos came to be…” We, rather, think She could as easily be described as descending from above, but that neither are quite right, and a new idea is needed.  The furies arose similarly from drops of blood. But she arises from the water of ocean, and is attended by Eros and desire, though not synonymous with these. Walking on the water is what Jesus did, and she, as Aphros or foam, floats. Both among mortals and immortals, she was allotted from the beginning “flirtatious conversations of maidens, smiles and deceits, sweet delight and passion of love and gentle enticements” (205-206). So it is not clear that she is not an “epi-phenomenon,” as materialistic psychology holds “consciousness” to be, at least until their names are called by love, as Leonard Cohen knows, and their old world too is “gone for dead.”

 When he shouts about Robin Hood, etc, he means that those heroes do not envy this poet’s challenge, more difficult than what they faced. Apparently, on the cover of the album is a picture of the ruby slippers, and there is reference to the time the witch tried to seize them, and got zapped. From Songfacts:

   This is one of several fan favorites from the Eldorado, considered by many to be Jeff Lynne’s best album. The album cover shows what appears to be the scene from the movie The Wizard Of Oz, as the Wicked Witch tries to snatch Dorothy’s Ruby Red Slippers.

@junkkillit Very nice, thanx. At first, I had they don’t envy him because he is a lesser hero, with the bank job, but now I see too it is that his task is more difficult. The experience too may be about becoming a poet through love, hence the concept album planned, eh? Those things happen from contact with It/She, called Anima or soul by Carl Jung, our man regarding these matters.

   Jung needed a new word because this is a new idea, not as we had, “Aphrodite” as a heavenly celibate love or an earthly bodily Venus, the mother of cupid or cupidity. Shakespeare explores this in Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night’s Dream.

   “Breakdown on the shoreline”: Contact with anima or “soul'” as the case of love can be devastating: “Can’t move. It’s an ebb tide.” Paralysis. Water flowing out is the unconscious, which floods the conscious mind in both madness and poetry, but in different ways. But I’ll bet the breakdown on the shoreline describes an actual experience where he sat all night at the shoreline, symbolic of the line between unconscious and conscious, and as Jung teaches too, Anima is a mediator. “Morning don’t get here tonight/ Searching for her silver light.” Silver tips the trees in the orchard of Capulet where Romeo sees Juliet, and recurs throughout the play. Then indeed, his old world was gone, and he became not a bankboy, but a poet, and a rock star or hero.

   From The website Songfacts: Lynne recalled in an edition of VH1’s Storytellers, that he found inspiration for the song in the unfulfilled reveries of an everyday bloke. “It’s about a guy in a dream who sees this vision of loveliness and wakes up and finds that he’s actually a clerk working in a bank,” he said. “And he hasn’t got any chance of getting her or doing all these wonderful things that he thought he was going to do.” It is also said on Songmeanings that he said in this interview there is more to it that he does not say.

   So, why is it Ivanhoe and William Tell and Robin Hood and Lancelot? Brits and Scots and Englishmen is one thing, but why not King Arthur? I’ll have to work on my Brit lit, to catch up with Lynne when he was a youngster.

When These Powers Are Abused, Absolutely Nothing is Done: Insurance Fraud in the “Mental Health” System?

It is of course extremely important that these systems are not abused or used against individuals for partisan political purposes, so that the systems function correctly when there is a genuine crisis.

Amendment IV to the U.S Constitution (FUNDAMENTAL LAW)

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the person or things to be seized.

Nothing is done when these powers are abused.

   One reason that I have let my health insurance lapse is that I do not think “They” would be as likely to do what they did to me last year if they had to eat the bill. As it is, I am charged 11$, and the taxpayer 5,308$ for what was done to me illegally, for absolutely no reason, in a single day. I have reported this to the Insurance company Aetna, which was chosen for me in place of Blue Cross, without my consent. Over one year, and about 7 or 8 appointments, two different doctor places did me absolutely no good for a facial palsy, likely caused by lyme disease from a tick, and a digestive malady. Either of these might be fatal. They did, however, put me on Avostatin, though my numbers were just below the level, and I had told them if it was close, I did not want it, and then “Lipitor,” prescribed but ignored. The Avostatin began to dissolve my memory, as memory apparently uses proteins. Part of the accusation against me was that I neglected my health care, and so am a danger to myself. Since the accusation, I no longer have the means to make and keep any appointment, since I have lost my ability to repair my 17 year old ranger, or pay for insurance. My elderly mother thus has no vehicle for emergencies.

But here is what they did to me in a single day for Five thousand plus taxpayer dollars:

On 3/23/17

HC-Lab metabolic Panel Comprehensive             157$

HC-Lab -Thyroid Stim Ho (TSH)                               117

HC-Lab-Cbc W/Plts & Diff                                             75

HC- Ekg                                                                            147

HC-Pulse Ox Multidetermination                              160

HC-er Visit Level 3                                                         84

Nicotine…gum                                                                      0.27

HC-Observation Per minute Psy Ed                         1,322.02

I believe they have neglected to mention illegally drugging me with Atavan,” 2 pills I first threw over my shoulder, having told them that I become extremely ill from small amounts of alcohol for an unknown reason. I was threatened with forced injection, so I retrieved the pills from the floor and ate them, becoming quite ill and delirious. This was done because I kept bothering the woman at the counter by saying they had no right to hold me, and demanding a lawyer. Contrary to law, I had not yet been shown the perjurous accusation (see “Conversations With Relatives”), and had no idea what was going on, except that that they had tried to take me away once before, and my sister had threatened to do something by compulsion if I did not “talk” to her friend Jake,” some kind of shrink who had “helped” her with her son, my nephew.

3/24/17

HC-Lab Dug screen Preliminary Urine Pan                          186$

HC–Lab-Urinalysis Macroscopic                                                27

I had sworn I would “piss in a cup for no man living,” when seeking work, and had never been subjected to such slavery in my life. Again, I submitted under obvious compulsion. It is not right to hurt ignorant people who have no free employment with which to earn a living, and they were clearly going to win in any case, even if they had to kill me. I watched them beat up and tie down an underage kid in the “observation” room across the hall. I had spoken to him in the waiting room, and he had similarly been taken there on the complaint of relatives, having done not a single thing wrong.

Breakfast (?)                                                                         4$

Lunch                                                                                      7$

HC- Observation Per minute Psy Ed                         2263.66

Total                                                                                  5308.36

The previous year, I earned about 1,600-1,800?$, and nearly lived on just this.

This year, I earned about 600$, most of which went to pay debts, and lived on the food card, less than 50$ per week. And, I sold about 160$ worth of hostas and catnip at my roadside stand, but all tomatoes, etc, with which I might do ok, failed.

“Observation” consists of being placed in a transparent room with a couch and a camera at the ceiling, next to the office while others go on about their work. I stared back at one girl working on a computer, just to be a smart ass, but she closed the blinds. I was of course livid about the camera, but did not show my outraged spirit, which would of course be to these people a useful sign of “mental illness,” like “non-cooperation. and I remember eating only a sandwich the previous day, and drinking only water, but as I said, I was drugged into oblivion. I was transported by ambulance to Monroe County “Promedica,” on Macomb street,” and was quite concerned that I was being taken to Macomb county, which would indeed be an interesting coincidence requiring explanation. As it turned out, Our county was full, they having so much compulsory business of late, and I was quite fortunate. I did not see the sun much, now a single green plant, for the next 19 days, while persistent attempts were made to drug me, first with “Haldol,” and then with “Senequil,” before finally it was admitted that the whole thing was without cause, and I was released. My sister, though, made an effort before a Macomb judge to have me permanently committed, and then to have me evicted.  All this time, my elderly mother struggled without help to take out voluminous amounts of trash and to care for 5 cats, some a way outside in the garage and shed. None of the 4 siblings who were quite present when trying to have me taken away, were around much, and none so much as cleaned the cat litter (which is not good for the elderly to do), 2 miles away from this “sister.” I had told numerous aunts, when trying to escape to Canada, that the mum could not stay there by herself, but was ignored. On mother’s Day, her leg broke by itself, while I was away driving to shop for pet food, and the youngest, non-Trumpster sister was on her way to visit. She was the only one to visit or call on Mother’s Day. Luckily, I had taken her to have the leg x-rayed just a few days prior, as the pain did not feel like a sore muscle, or I may have been accused.  The only text of a book that took 7 years to write was damaged, the inside of the shed soaked, with many papers, as I had been seized while vacuuming, left the door open, and the roof leaks. and no garden planted.

   Just today, two sisters came, the youngest to take the mum shopping, but the middle one for no apparent reason. I worried again that hey would have me taken away for no reason, as this is just how it looked last time. The brother and the eldest, the hyena sister, have not visited their mother a single time in a year now, though they call her on occasion. Not a single person has apologized to me yet, nor have I spoken to a single Aunt. I did call my father on superbowl day, though. Despite being a Trumpster, he is civil so long as I do not say anything significant, like, “Say, have you noticed that I was dead nuts right about Russia, Kaspersky, the spy-tech in the livingroom, Oxy-heroin, Jerid, my legal rights, them having no right to do a single thing you helped them do to me, any legal restriction on my right to emigrate back to Canada, etc…? and he pretends to remember less than he does. Otherwise, I have not spoke to a single Trumpster relative.

 

Justin Martyr on Pre- Christian Christians

   Before Christianity became acceptable rather than persecuted in Rome, the Christians never persecuted a single person over doctrine. Then Constantius the father of Constantine and husband of St. Helen was the first Christian co-emperor, and his story in Eusebius is neglected and very interesting, as, rather than persecute the Christians, he took all those who would become martyrs by refusing to worship the emperor into his service, and dismissed the slavish and the others. Then, as is more well known, Constantine won a battle and attributed his good fortune to the cross of light seen in the sky and posted on his soldier’s shields, and in 1 issued the edict of toleration. But failing to stop there, his son Constantius began some of the worst religious persecutions ever seen. Once Christianity becomes the official religion of Rome, doctrine becomes the ruling opinion, and religious persecution does not cease until Jefferson, Madison and the First Amendment to the U. S. Constitution. It literally did not occur to anyone, even Plato after seeing Socrates put to death for “impiety,” that political orders might just not impose fundamental opinions about the first things. Roger Williams, the first American Baptist and founder of Providence and Rhode Island, seems to have been the originator of Religious liberty, or what came to be called the separation of Church and State. His followers had to persuade Jefferson and Madison, it was so radical an idea, that establishment of religion might be set aside, though in hindsight, it is the only way the 13 colonies could have joined into a sovereign union without religious wars till one sect prevailed. Luther was one of the first to reject the death penalty for heresy, but his followers persecuted the Anabaptist. It is really Roger Williams to whom we owe religious liberty, even though the latter baptists have similarly imposed religious law and shun dissent. The shunning practiced by other sects, such as even the Quakers, to whom we owe much of the abolitionist and feminist equality now universally taken for granted, practice a rather terrible form of this shunning, as do the Mormons, even though they themselves suffered persecution. Only where the faith is mere tradition do people seem to be able to follow John Locke, who may have himself been an atheist, and hold toleration, except for the intolerant to be a principle.

   One can only marvel at this circumstance, and we will spend our lives trying to explain it. Christians have more difficulty loving their neighbor than any other people, or at least as much, as though, despite that little thing about the Samaritan, they were not at all improved in this for having the Messiah himself as a teacher. Indeed, some will even not believe if one were to return from the grave. We come to the conclusion that almost all men are limited to opinion, belief or what Paul calls religion of law. Our paradox of faith and works is necessary because Christians do not distinguish between faith and opinion. But as Platonists, we are led to wonder what it means in the soul to take and hold Christianity as a religion of law. The issue is unexpectedly deep. Following Paul (Romans 2),* we hypothesize that the law makes what Jung calls a shadow, teaching our appetites for example what it means to covet, and really suggesting the forbidden things to the obverse of the imagination. Again strangely, because in the most obvious sense it is not true, nature uncultivated is prior to the law, and even animals “covet,” Paul opens his attempt to explain that he is not saying that the law is sin

…Yet if it had not been for the law, I should not have known sin I should not have known what it is to covet if the law had not said, “You shall not covet.” But sin, finding opportunity in the commandment, wrought in me all kinds of covetousness. Apart from the law, sin lies dead I was once alive apart from the law, but when the commandment came, sin revived and I died; the very commandment which promised life proved to be death to me. For sin, finding opportunity in the commandment, deceived me, and by it killed me….’

                                                                    Romans 7: 7-11

   It is the law that causes the death that leads to rebirth (Romans 6; John 3, Romans 8:13) by being the guide of penance. And here Paul enters into the more famous “So then it is no longer I that do it…” and “I do not do the good I want, but the evil I do not want is what I do…” and there is the famous elliptical reference to a thorn in the flesh he suffered, just to keep him from thinking he was a divinity, despite the height and graciousness of his mind: If the Christ is true, he is one of maybe the 6 or 8 greatest minds of all time, and the second greatest of the Christian minds, despite not being an apostle but a persecutor of the Christians while Jesus lived, till he was famously and proverbially knocked off his high horse.

   To work our way back to Justin Martyr, we have this amusing theory that our taking Christianity as though it were a “religion of law” in the Pauline sense has caused the anti-Christian motion of the history of modernity. What appears sure is that the medieval persecutions and those following, enacted hypocritically by the doctrinal Christians, caused the reaction of common sense and decent humans to reject Christianity, despite nothing of the sort ever having been taught by the Christ. And now, with our lengthy but unprecedented Christian psychology, the reader might be prepared to see what we are trying to explain about Justin Martyr. For if we are correct, the “Antichrist” can only gain a following or find mankind prepared for destruction because of the failure of The Christians- as would make sense for something that…Is not…” its effect is due to the darkness of the human soul. See if you do not find in this saying the significance that I do. Justin writes:

…We have been taught that Christ is the fist-born of God, and we have declared above that He is the Word of whom every ace of men were partakers; and those who lived with the logos (translated reasonably, or with reason, with the word (John 1) are Christians, even though they have been thought Atheists; as, among the Geeks, Socrates and Heraclitus, and men like them; and among the babarians, Abraham, and Ananias, and Azarias, and Misael, and Elias, and many others whose actions and whose names we now decline to recount, because we know it would be tedious. So that even they who lived before Christ, and lived without reason, were wicked and hostile to Christ, and slew those who lived reasonably…

The First Apology of Justin, Chapter 47

   Hence, as it is much more clear now, those professing Christianity, and seriously doing all they think needed to save themselves, though not for its own sake, but for self interest, while harming their neighbor, may just not escape the judgement (John 5), but those who finding the mystery are from the world, or, as Plato showed, are turned and drawn up out of the earth as being like a cave, these are saved, As it seems, even if like Noah and Enoch, they did not know the historical name nor speak this correctly, or use the word and name we use as it is not a matter like magic words. Similarly, those who think themselves followers of Krishna, and find the mysteries may also be saved, and by the Christ, even if like Maimonides, they watched the Christians kill and torture their parents, and so thought Jesus to be evil and idolatrously worshiped god. Similarly, Those who love their neighbor and do deeds of Justice, charity and chastity under the name of Mohammed will be judged according to their works, just as Jesus says (Revelation 20), and if the soul is immortal, no deed of justice is likely to pass away. For the teaching is tat the soul is immortal,regardless (John 5), i is immortal life that we find when we turn and call on the name.

   Justin is the first Christian to read Plato, and he does not assume what Augustine assumes, that every believing Christian is of higher rank than Plato, perhaps the greatest writer of all time. Nor does he assume what Dante assumes in, as we think obscenely, placing Plato and Socrates in Hell. Indeed, we set Dante aside at this page, as a mere poet who did not really understand, and only now, reading Romeo and Juliet, have come to return to him, realizing that he never read Plato at all, as Plato was simply not then available at all. It is a revolution, not so much in understanding Christianity, but in understanding the relation of Christianity to the rest of humanity and thought, of faith and reason and human history. Just as, prior to the end of the days of persecution and the enthronement of Christian dogma, all the Christians were Chiliasts, believers in a literal millennium, and after Augustine none of them were, due to a Flattery of Rome, so prior to this change** all Christians had access to this teaching that Christianity is not a law in the same way that the Mosaic and Mohammedian are laws, to prepare for the Christ. Not a jot need be removed from Mosaic law, and still Jesus frees the adulteress, technically contrary to law, and contrary to the assumption that the Bible is the word of God and cannot be contradicted. The five things Jesus says “you have heard of old” are Mosaic teachings, and when the teaching of Jesus supersedes these Mosaic teachings, he supersedes the teachings of Moses (Matthew 5-7), as the Jews think impossible but the Christians accept, or more accurately ignore, as we also ignore the theoretical difficulty of the post- Pentecostal disagreement between Paul and Peter, when the Apostles first realized the universal implications, if Jesus were not sent only for the Jews, but for all mankind “universally,” as we say. This is not a Pauline invention, but was also known to John, and John agreed. For the Old Testament, contrary to the “word of God” religion of law Christian cults, is only the law for the Jews, while the Noachite law is universal. So too, the peoples of the west have developed the common law with effort, because after Jesus, we who are not Jews are on our own regarding law, though taking Moses, Abraham and Noah, and perhaps Theseus, but but Romulus and not Numa , as guides.

   And many readers notice the monotheism of Plato’s Socrates, which would be strange indeed if his talk about “The God” were for the sake of appearance. Why innovate to appear to uphold custom, as those who think “religion” can be assumed to be an instrument of politics?

   The usual explanation refers to the descent of Jesus into the underworld to free those like Noah and Abraham, without these doing anything different during their lives. But from the perspective outside time, we can say, with the apostle Phillip (Nag Hammadi manuscripts), that from the beginning, the Christ lays down his life for man, or that he way through death is always, in being, apart from conventions made by man, and in this sense apart from names.

   And so it becomes clearer that salvation is not a matter of being born and raised by accident in the right tradition, but that these things are similar to the religions of those considered “pagan.” The splintering of the protestant sects makes this point only more obvious, that men are limited to opinion, and that they hold to this as though it were being, though it is at best a gateway. All men have a tradition, and very few even question these enough to reject some vary contradictory points. Nor is salvation likely to depend upon the slight differences in doctrine that have grown up. The division between eastern and western churches, for example, simply grew with time, and yet, after a millennium, these no longer accept one another’s sacraments. But it is a blessing to have the sacraments, as these communicate to the soul the mysteries, like a breeze bringing access to healthy places.

  *Paul, strangely, teaches, after his teaching against homosexuality in Romans 1, (following Jewish Mosaic and Noachite law- a point so fundamental that Jesus never mentioned it)- teaches, as we read, that the worse sin is in those judging the homosexuals. “for in passing judgement upon him you condemn yourself, because you, the judge, are doing the very same things. And he does not say if you are, he says you are. We reason, or hypothesize, that it is not only that all have sinned and fallen short of the glory…(3:23), but that moral indignation is an anger demonstrating faction in the soul, and un-transformed appetite in the one seized by indignation. Otherwise the appetites and the shame that keeps the appetites from ruling the young, as distinct from genuine evil where one intends to harm another, whether for their own advantage or worse from sheer malice- The appetites are literally a joke, and the proper subject not of tragedy but comedy. Our subjection to the ignoble things of the body is a joke, and precisely because, unlike the necessary bodily things that we hide, these things are, avoidable or almost entirely avoidable, and base! The virtuous soul is entirely free of them, though this is rare, and our “self-esteem” leads us to fool ourselves!

**The fist two sections of the Bob Dylan song “Sad Eyed Lady of the Lowlands” corresponds, perhaps intentionally, to these two phases of Church history.