Tempest Excerpt: Conclusion on King Lear

Last two pages of the book King Lear with The Tempest:

There is a similar relation, [to that between Romeo and Juliet and A Midsummer Night’s Dream] based on a common pattern, between the British tragedy of Lear and the Italian comedy. These are the two non-historical plays that deal especially with a succession of Royal Rule. The unwise management of the three parts of the British kingdom by Lear is contrasted with the wise management of the Italian succession by Prospero. The tragic relation of Lear to his daughter, and perhaps his error regarding her marriage, is contrasted with the success of Prospero in securing a happy life for Miranda. The storm scenes, on the land in the center of Lear and at sea in the opening of the Tempest, indicate a treatment of the same theme, of the dissolution of the conventional orders. [6] The Tempest seems to presuppose the center, and hence the whole of Lear. The conventional kingship of Lear, which in the tragedy comes crashing down,is contrasted with the natural royalty or philosophic statesmanship of wisdom. Ironically, this natural royalty proves in certain ways to be what the flattery of custom told Lear he was as king.

As noted above, there is some parallel between Edgar and Prospero. The Tempest raises the theme of a conflict between brothers to the center of focus. The conflict of two brothers in Lear effects the changes of the kingdom in the main plot only as Edmund rises toward the tyranny, until Edgar, in the decisive duel, prevents Edmund from turning the fall of Lear into a tyranny. As in the Tempest, the victory of the royal nature over tyranny depends on the return of the divested but virtuous character to active rule. Like Prospero, [7] Edgar returns from his divestment to wear the clothing of his true appearance in the end. Edgar develops through the play from a gullible but true son through a series of disguises He takes on the appearance first of a Bedlam beggar, then ascends to the peasant’s clothes in which he leads his father, to the guise of a sailor or seaman who convinces Gloucester that the madman was a fiend. In this guise he slays Oswald, From here he changes clothing again to the knight who appears armed and defeats Edmund. Having completed the recovery of his position as heir to the earldom, he publicly reveals himself as Edgar. From here he ascends again,as he is invited by Albany to share in the ruling of the “gored state” of Britain. He may come to fulfill the royal nature- a perfection of ethical virtue. [Thomas G.] West compares Edgar with King Henry V, in that these two “redeem the time- exercising kingly rule in imitation of the redemption [8]. His foresight and effectiveness indicate that he is, as Berns writes, the paradigm of virtue in the play.” [9]

The wise rule of Prospero is based on a discovery of the higher nature, especially a political knowledge of the human souls, by which for example, he separates each of the three groups on the island [10] and orchestrates the marriage of Ferdinand and Miranda. [11] It is by this higher nature- the same as that revealed in the Socratic turn, that the philosophic Duke knows how each thing would be best, and works with nature to bring this good about. By this knowledge, Prospero sends Ariel to deceive even the King of Naples intpo believing that he has lost his son as punishment for deposing the Duke of Milan It is on the basis of a similar sort of knowledge that Edgar deceives his already penitent father into believing that the gods have acted not in the punishment but in the preservation of his bodily life.

When Lear sees Edgar in the hovel, he takes the disguised appearance of natural virtue, two or three times removed, to be the thing itself. [Lawrence] Berns writes of Edgar:

The same consummate irony that led him, correctly but for the wrong reasons, to be called the “thing itself,” that is, the natural man, by Lear, may be at work also in his being called “philosopher.”

Berns, Gratuitude, Nature and Piety, p. 51

The royal character who is not a philosopher is also an image of the philosopher (Hamlet II,ii, 260-271). This principle allows for the natural prince in the plot of Lear to reflect the action of Prospero, and the highest argument regarding the most fundamental principles, taken up by the playwright himself. He represents the claim of natural merit, although unlike Edmund, Edgar never uses the word “nature.” These two appeals to nature are two fundamental understandings of self interest or the good, one in basic accord with, but the other rejecting, justice. The other rejects natural right not in the sense of the claim to rule by nature- which it has, based on power- but in the sense of the upright character and what is right among human according to nature. The connection of the character of Edgar to the Shakespearean recovery of natural right is veiled in his being the true claimant to all that Edmund attempts to usurp, both in the appeal from custom to natural virtue and in the appeal to Grace, which Goneril made for him. By being in truth what he is by custom, Edgar demonstrates the natural being which is the cause of the reflection in the custom or law. Edgar is not only a knight, but is also the godson of Lear. [13] His being the godson of Lear seems to suggest that the symbolic meaning of the ceremonial orders of the old monarchy is continued in, and possibly fulfilled by, the natural virtue of Edgar.

Like the character of Prospero in the Tempest, the character of Edgar may be autobiographical. Like Prospero, the work of Edgar is to prevent his evil brother, here the embodiment of the principle acquisition or power, from seizing rule. The response of Edgar to this potentially horrifying circumstance would be like the practical aspect of the thought of Shakespeare toward his own circumstance, or like the position of philosophy regarding the soul and the ruling opinion of the West. Contrary to the assertion of Howard White in his Copp’d Hills Toward Heaven,, the project of Shakespeare seems to aim more to oppose the principle introduced into the soul of the West by Machiavelli, than it aims to affirm a classical teaching in contrast with Christian custom or Christianity. [14] One might say that the problem of Prospero is more Antonio than Alonso, and the problem of Edgar more Edmund than Gloucester or Lear.

Unlike Prospero, Edgar does not act to effect the arrangement of royal rule, but acts only to prevent the tyranny of his brother. In this limited governance, the statesmanship of the royal nature is distinguished from the philosophic statesmanship of Prospero, which does address the fundamental orders. The work of philosophy or wisdom inn the political world, as distinct from the magic island,is not literal royal rule, but, as in the care of the American founding fathers, the prevention of tyranny.

Notes

6. Paul Cantor. Prospero’s Republic p. 241.

7. John Alvis, John Postscript.” In Shakespreare’s understanding of honor, p. 10 (443).

8. West, Thomas G. Institute colloquium on King Lear, 1986.

9 Lawrence Berns, “Gratitude, Nature and Piety in King Lear,” p. 50.

10. Allan Bloom; “Interpretive Essay” on Plato’s Republic. p. 361

11. Jaffa writes: “According to Plato, the arrangement of marriages is the central mystery of philosophic rule. The arrangement of the marriage between Ferdinand and Miranda is the culmination of the exercise by Prospero of that wisdom he has gained by making the liberal arts “all my study” (“An Interpretation of the Shakespearean Universe,” p. 281).

12. De Alvarez, The Clearing, Class 2; Berns, p. 51, note 68.

13. Alulis, “Wisdom and Fortune: The Education of the Prince in King Lear.”p. 389 note 21.

14. White, Copp’d Hills, p. 65. There is admittedly a sense in which Shakespeare as a writer is classical rather than Christian. Because of the separation of Church and state, American public life and public education cannot turn to Jerusalem in the attempt to address the erosion of the ethical foundation of self government. The secular solution consistent with American liberty might be to set American public life and education on the foundation of Athenian ethical and political philosophy. This can include Shakespeare, who, like Plato and Aristotle,can be common to all. See Bloom, Introduction to Shakespeare’s Politics, pp. 1-12.

Reading the Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse: Revelation 6

Thinking about the four horsemen, which we failed to understand in writing on the Revelation (pp. 123-129), some advance in clarity is possible. I had determined that Hal Lindsey was on the wrong track, but did not know what to do with this section, except that it leads up to the martyrs seen under the sixth seal. But the church history sought by Erdman and others in the 7 letters rather would be more likely to fit literally here, literally after the things concerning martyrdom that do pertain to the 7 churches. The four horsemen are like the 4 horses in the dream of Zechariah (1:6-10), sent out to patrol. There is also a similarity to the four beasts that arose from the sea in the night vision of Daniel 7, seen to refer to empires over Jerusalem Each is introduced by one of the four “living beings,” the Zoa seen around the throne. The fourth is most terrible, and is specified to effect one fourth of the earth, while an extent is not specified for the first three horsemen. This extent, leading to martyrs, is about the same as the extent of twentieth century totalitarianism. The first, on a white horse goes out to conquer, and did so. This is similar to the Roman empire to 365 AD, though then I lose track of the argument. The sword could be Islam or the general wars that superseded the peace of Rome. The second and third, the red and black horses, whose riders have a sword and then a balance, are not clear. Then the fourth is pale, and his rider’s name was “Death and Hades.”

What if these were something like:

Ancient

Medieval

Modern

Totalitarian

Another might be the nations scattering Jerusalem, Rome, Islam, the knights and then the Turks or the British. But we look especially to huge things like the succeeding empires over Jerusalem addressed in Daniel ( the Babylonia, Mede-Persian, Greek and Roman).effecting the church (es), in keeping with the theme, and resulting in the martyrs seen under the throne. The sixth and seventh seals then concern the completion of their number.

The Michigan Basin Supervolcano: Hypothesis

The Michigan Basin is a bowl shape underneath the mitten of Michigan. It is thought to have been formed by the successive layers being pushed downward. But we think it obvious that there was a very large super volcano, about 2 Billion years ago, along what is called the Midcontinent Rift. This crater then collapsed, to be filled in by the Cambrian and layers following. The Porcupine Mountains and the belt of copper around the Keewanaw Peninsula follow the circumference of the Basin, and these mountains are among the oldest in the world, estimated at 2 Billion years old. The three Great Lakes- Michigan Huron and Erie, are within the Basin, while the deepest lakes, Superior and Ontario, are outside the Basin along the Rift, which seems to have nearly left Canada with Europe when the continents separated throughout the following billions of years. There is a Super volcano at Yellowstone, which last erupted about 640 thousand, that is, less than ONE million years ago years ago, and it is evident from previous eruptions near Yellowstone to the West SW that the crust of the earth has moved from the shaft. What we say is that something similar obviously occurred along the Midcontinent Rift at least as long ago as the Porcupine Mountains were formed

The rings of Michigan bedrock are due to sediments deposited in each of the past geological ages. These filled in the basin, then the softer rock was scoured out by glaciers.

Here is the basin when salt was being deposited:

Here is the Midcontinent Rift:

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OLD mountains! The mystery of the Michigan Basin deepens: Wikipedia The Porcupine Mountaims:

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These mountains and the copper belt are in the outer layer of the basin, following the circumference, It could still be a meteor, if this disturbed the crust 2B ago…

Hypothesis: The Pocupine Mountains and Michigan copper are from the volcano that made the Michigan basin, 2 Billion years ago.

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The 5 Oldest Mountain Ranges are: The Barbertown Greenstone Belt (3.6 Billion Years) Country and Origin: South Africa and Swaziland. … The Hamersley Range (3.4 Billion Years) … The Waterberg Mountains (2.7 Billion Years) … The Magaliesberg (2.3 Billion Years) … Guiana Highlands 2

Yellowstone super volcano last went off about 640,000 years ago- more recent than one million, whereas the Michigan basin volcano would be 2 Billion, just after earth was cooling and the land appearing. Similar to the Michigan Basin, Yellowstone did not leave a mountain, and we figured out with some difficulty that it was there at all.

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Geologically passive? There just happens to be precambrian mountains and volcanic stuff shaped like the edge of the basin?

Wiki: “The basin appears to have subsided concurrently with sediment infilling. These sediments were found to be mainly shallow-water sediments, many of which are richly fossiliferous. The location was on a geologically passive portion of crust.”

Guess again! But here we see the subduction causing the Basin and the Porcupines may have been later than the huge eruption.

In The Lake Superior Basin’s Fiery Beginning https://www.lakesuperior.com/the-lake/natural-world/243-lake-superior-basin-fiery-beginning/, John C. Green writes:

“In our area, the oldest rocks are about 2.7 billion years old. Found mostly along Lake Superior’s Ontario shores and located in the area called the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield, these ancient rocks date from the Archean Eon.”

The volcanic and granitic rocks tell us of the building of great mountain ranges, perhaps rivaling the Alps but which have since been eroded to the nub. The rocks we see today along the lakeshore in Ontario were once miles beneath the surface, exposed after hundreds of millions of years of erosion removed the overlying rocks.”

“Instead of lava dribbling and drooling down the flanks of large volcanic mountains, imagine huge fountains of intensely glowing lava spurting up from fissures that extended for miles across a barren plain. So much highly fluid lava would erupt in one event that it simply spread out, in many cases for hundreds, or even thousands of square miles, to form a huge, pancake-like lava flow.”

Called a “plume,” this rising cylinder of hot mantle rock came up and spread out under the stiffer lithosphere (the crust and uppermost mantle). This plume (as illustrated on the bottom of this page) apparently centered under where Lake Superior is today and, in fact, determined where our Great Lake would eventually develop.”

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Lake Superior Geology

One Geologist comments: that the location of the Michigan Basin “was on a geologically passive portion of crust. The development of the basin and the surrounding arches were likely affected by the tectonic activity of the long-term Appalachian orogeny several hundred miles to the south and east.”

The continents were all together then- New York matches up with Scotland, the lower East coast with Africa. Somewhere in there is where the 3 continents came together- around the Pillars of Hercules.

2 billion years old The Porcupine Mountains themselves arise abruptly from Lake Superior to form a 12 mile long escarpment which parallels the lakeshore for a distance of 1.5 miles. At 2 billion years old, the mountains are a section of one of the oldest mountain chains in the world.;

I’m guessing the Basin was caused by a super volcano in 2 Billion B.C. History of the Earth: March 12. Michigan Basin https://historyoftheearthcalendar.blogspot.com/2014/03/march-12-michigan-basin.html?spref=tw…

All that is required for the supervolcano hypothesis is that the huge plume Green writes of came out right under the Michigan basin, causing a circular collapse of the column.

This is when the salt was being deposited in the basin:

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Grand Canyon layers:

Making North America | Uncovering Layers of the Grand Canyon | PBS  LearningMedia

These show what was going on during the depositing of each layer. The glaciers have scoured away most of the post Jurassic- so we have few dinosaur bones, though an occasional mammoth from after glacier times. Scoured away and we were repeatedly under water, since the Pennsylvanian

Ray Troll

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Earth Science - CH 9 Flashcards | Quizlet

The end of the last ice age:

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In some 12,000 years, it is said Niagra falls, receeding, will arrive at Lake Erie, and the lakes suddenly drain to that level. Buy lakefront property! We could sell water to Colorodo in 11 k years.

Before the continents even separated, we almost left the Canucks with Europe!

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Letter on the Epidemic of Shootings in the US

Dear Representative Dingell:

Please consider the possibility that psychiatric drugs, specifically antidepressants are CAUSING the epidemic of mass shootings in our nation.

HIPAA laws prevent the gathering and therefore study of this possibility, so that if it were so we would not know. Factors similar to the Oxy-heroin scam may be occurring. A known side effect on some persons is listed on the bottles- “suicidal ideation.” Might these not also make certain bad persons randomly murderous? The instances where the victims are not known to the shooter are especially interesting. What if 90% “involved” antidepressants? Most are under the care of our “Mental health” systems, which have obviously failed in these instances.

Mass psychiatric drugging is what we are doing that is different from all other armed nations and times, in which these shootings did not occur. While I also strongly advocate any gun control measures possible- if 18% of our people need psychiatric drugs, we may want to rethink that second Amendment!- it becomes gradually clearer that our psychiatry simply does not have the knowledge that would be required to treat the soul with drugs. An example is the recent deposing of the assumption that depression is a chemical imbalance. As a lifelong student of psychology, we submit the opinion that our psychiatry is in a word profitable, but unscientific ineffective and often decisively harmful- though necessary. Nor has it been answerable to any higher judge or authority, allowing great opportunity for pharmacy companies to harvest tax dollars while doing more harm than good.

Thank You,

Your new constituent,

Mark A. McDonald, PhD (Politics)

Menexenus: Constitution of Athens

Who else would write this? It is like a blog on the occasion of the funeral oration. I would append it to my blog on Theseus. But here is a democratic republic most similar to ours- minus a Sicilian expedition!

Then as now, our government was an aristocracy or government of the best which has the approval of the many. For kings we have always had, first hereditary then elected, and authority is mostly in the hands of the people, who dispense offices and power to those who appear to be most deserving of them Neither is a man rejected from weakness or poverty or obscurity of origin, nor honored by reason of the opposite, as in other cities, but there is one principle- he who appears to be wise and good is a governor and ruler. The basis of this our government is equality of birth, for other cities are made up of all sorts and unequal conditions of men, and therefore their governments are unequal- there are tyrannies and there are oligarchies, in which the one party are slaves and the others masters. But we and our citizens are brethren, the children all of one mother, and we do not think it right to be one another’s masters or servants, but the natural equality of birth compels us to seek for natural equality, and to recognize no superiority except in the reputation of virtue and wisdom.

Plato, Menexenus (Jowett), 238c- 239a

Christmasology: The First American Christmas, 1622?

The Puritans and Quakers did not celebrate Christmas, objecting to its secularization and that December 25 was not the birth date of the Messiah anyway. The New Company which arrived on the ship Fortune were “adventurers,” and not religious pilgrims. There is no Santa Claus here yet.

On the day called Christmas day, the Governor called them out to work as was used, but most of this new company excused themselves, and said it went against their conscience to work on that day. So the Governor told them that if they made it a matter of conscience, he would spare them until they were better informed; so he led away the rest and left them But when they came home at noon from their work, he found them in the street at play, openly, some pitching the bar, and some at stool-ball and such like sport. So he went to them and took away their implements and told them that it was against his conscience that they should play while others worked. If they made the keeping of it a matter of devotion, let them keep their houses, but there should be no gaming or reveling in the streets. Since which time nothing hath been attempted that way, at least openly.

William Bradford Of Plymouth Plantation

From The American Tradition in Literature, p. 28

That Christmas is to spread the Christmas spirit through the less religious elements of the community, even and especially to children who won’t yet see the things in the gospels, is interesting in light of its non-Puritan origin or first instance on the American continent. Stool ball is a game like the English game cricket, an ancestor of baseball, and so, by divine coincidence, the first American Christmas may have included baseball.

The Christ and “Religion”

In discussions with atheists, one impenetrable issue has been the distinction between the way of the Christ and what is common to all mankind in all ages, except in parts of our own age, called “religion.” The insistence is that Christianity is simply one among many false “religions,” which our enlightened age now knows to be false, with no more to say about the soul than unicorns about taxonomy, mere imaginary fables, etc. The assurance these hold demonstrates that this has in a way become our custom or dogma, replacing all others, and allowing us the new banner of toleration, the only virtue, on whose altar we have sacrificed all other virtues.

This question is far more complex than at first appears. Abraham rejected the religion of Babylon, the idols and false gods, when he came forth from Ur to receive the Promise. He hears God directly, and then is taught by Melchizedek about God Most High, the maker of heaven and earth, as distinct from the gods of “polytheism,” which are made of have come to be. Idolatrous religion is different from Mosaic religion, which is intended to replace it as animal sacrifice replaces human sacrifice.

A crucial teaching is contained in a statement of Paul in his Letter to the Galatians.

Formerly, when you did not know God, you were in bondage to beings that by nature (phusei) are no gods; but now that you have come to know (gnontes, knowing) God, or rather to be known (gnosthenres) by God, how can you turn back again to the weak and beggarly elemental spirits (stoichia,) whose slaves you want to be once more? You observe days and months and seasons and years! I am afraid I have labored over you in vain.

Galatians 4:

To worship the gods is a kind of enslavement to the weak elements, and this is related to the keeping of the calendar. That they are not quite said to know God, but rather be known by God, as through baptism, is of course interesting to us, but here the interesting point regards worship. The Christ receives this worship, as though it were formerly improperly given, and the table of the Last supper replaces ritual. The Christian images were then in conflict with every sort of common practice, but gradually, as the world became Christian, these same things continue- cities, laws, territories and conflicting ways, attempts to influence fortune, hierarchies of priests and honoring of the dead, imaginations of Providence. Then Saint Helen began the recovery of the relics, and the Christians could come out of the catacombs, having suffered the ten persecutions by Rome from Nero to Diocletan. Newton,* for example, blames the early Papacy, following Constantine, with introducing the worshiping of dead men’s souls and images, “mazuzahim,” he calls this. While this may in one side be a proper criticism, whom is it better men honor than saints, and are they really taught to worship them? Christian images and doctrines are conflated with the ancient and what Bloom calls “one’s own,” where originally the Way is a leaving behind of all these worldly things. Let the dead bury the dead. Only then is it possible that “Christians, or Christendom persecute of make martyrs, which of course never occurred in a single instance prior to the conversion of Rome. Again, one might ask, is it not better that the orders be Christian? The separation of Church and state was not yet imagined, but is the answer to this problem bequeathed or donated us by Constantine. The Papal states are especially the place where one sees the conjunction of the regimes of cities and nations with the Christian church. This has now been reduced to Vatican City, and Italy has become a unified nation, after Garibaldi.

The appearances of the word “religion” (threskeias) in scripture are rare and revealing, occurring only 5 times in 3 places, and never in the sense used when Christians speak of what they are doing or praise their own “revealed religion,” for example. It would be interesting to note the first time in history that Christianity was even called a religion. Paul and James use the word, while none of the Apostles or Jesus do so, ever. In Acts (26:5), Paul explains “…according to the strictest party of our religion I have lived as a Pharisee” The King James version also uses the word at Gal 1:13-14.

James writes:

“If any one among you thinks to be religious among you, not bridling his tongue, but deceiving his heart, the religion of this one is vain. Religion clean and undefiled before God the father is this, to visit orphans and widows in their affliction and to keep oneself unspotted from the world.

This may be the only use of the word in a scripture in a sense that is not derogatory, or only semi- derogatory. Neither the Christians nor the Christ see themselves as establishing a “religion,” and their relation to all these things is a continual question, rather than anything clear. The Protestants at first made a great issue of this point and this was correct. Through all human history, humans have always had an understanding of things divine or above the mundane, and have always been concerned with the dead, and often with the afterlife- as in Egypt, though such things are astonishingly absent from the Hebrew scriptures. There have always been superstitious understandings of the causes, and what one finds is that Christians are not excepted from these ancient and local things merely by taking the name of Christian. The meetings of the earliest Christians around the Eucharist or “Lord’s Supper” would replace the meetings as at the Temple in Jerusalem, but there is nothing like what was to occur when the Christian images and opinions descended upon and over the pagan practices in the Greek and Roman world of Olympian gods and ancient ways quite foreign to Jerusalem, and quite similar to the idolatrous practices which Mosaic law replaced in Canaan, once out of Egypt- where the things said and done regarding the afterlife- including penance and forgiveness- are done amid an idolatrous religion. One point that arises repeatedly is that the Christians persecuted no one prior to the Fourth Century, when Constantine made Rome Christian, and Rome, having once persecuted the Christians and Jews especially for not worshiping the emperor continued to persecute, though now it was heretics, as began with the Donatists, priest reinstated who had be defrocked for fearing to face martyrdom rather than turn over the scriptures in the last Roman persecution. Soon Aryan and Catholic would be the issue, and it was one thing after another, though persecutions did become rare from the sixth until the early twelfth century.

In Rome as in Britain, Christianity was simply superimposed upon “pagan” altars. Rome in the 4th century took on an odd combination of Jewish temple and Roman pontificate, replacing the Rome that once persecuted Christians with the Rome that made martyrs of heretics. Changing the images did not end either war nor persecutions. One must wonder at the blessing when the 10 persecutions over the refusal to worship the emperor as a god gave way to the imposition of a unified doctrine. Humans did become more humane over all, with the difference that Christianity would now take the blame for the sins of the city.

Geoffrey of Monmouth indicates how the new religion was simply superimposed upon the pagan orders and images.*

When King St. Lucius, the first Christian king excepting Abgar, turned Britain to Christianity, about 156 AD,

…Once the holy missionaries had put an end to paganism throughout almost the whole island, they dedicated to the One God and His Blessed Saints the temples which had been founded in honor of a multiplicity of gods, assigning to them various categories of men in orders. At that time there were 28 flamens in Britain and three archflamens to whose jurisdiction the other spiritual leaders and judges of public morals were subject. At the Pope’s bidding, the missionaries converted these men from their idolatry. Where there were flamens, he placed bishops, and where there were archflamens, they appointed archbishops The seats of the archflamens had been in three noble cities: London, York, and the city of Legions, the site of which last is still known by its by the river Usk in Glaumorgan, is still known by its ancient walls and buildings. The twenty-eight bishops were placed under the jurisdiction of these three cities, once the superstitions practiced there had been purged away.

History of the Kings of Britain, IV.20

Coilus, the father of Lucius and the son of a Marius, son of Avarargus, had been friendly with Rome and paid tribute voluntarily- this in a time in the second century of the more decent emperors, and between persecutions, though it is clear that Britain is on the fringes of the Roman empire, and able to have kings and become Christian. The Coilus line continues after Lucius and a few usurpations to Old King Cole and his son Cole, the father of St. Helen who married a young Constantius, father of Constantine, and moved to York, where Constantine was crowned (Eusebius).

Now the principalities and powers are to become Christian- an improvement, maybe, though anti-christian ire will result from the evils of the city and crimes committed under the banner of the Christ. The cave does not cease to be a cave when painted over with christian images- though these may better lead up and out. It is the soul of humans that is caved and will see only shadows and artificial copies of the real beings outside the cave.

The Jehovah’s Witnesses and others reject the customs of Easter and Christmas on the basis of this history of the mixing of Christian and “pagan” ways, and holidays may be what Paul means when he writes, “You observe days and month and years- I fear I have labored over you in vain.” The mixture of the customs of Samhein with all Saints day to become All Hallows Eve is a good example- turnips and disguises being much older among the Irish than the honoring of all the saints.The monk’s calendaration- our favorite pastime- is not a part of Christianity as such at all, but has of course emerged from the melding of common festivals and imaginings with a Christian world. Santa Claus is a good example of how these things emerge, as this is a fairly recent folk tale. It is mixed, though, with the gift giving of the three wise men, and there seems no reason we should cease these things. From the beginning the Christians had something like the meeting at Synagogues or at the Temple in Jerusalem surrounding the celebration of the Eucharist or communion.

Shakespeare addresses these local dieties, the Fairies, in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. The nights are no longer blessed with hymn of carol, and this leads to disorders. The poet aims to restore this intermediary realm to its legitimate expression. With the advent of Christianity and the Socratic discovery of “hyper-ouranian” being, what once were the gods and personifications of the more collective causes regarding the soul or psyche become intermediary beings, and the psychoid is revealed as subordinate to Being. “Love is not a god but a spirit” is how this appears in the Symposium, who ascends with our prayers and descends with answers, which is the work of love. The image of this is the sea between two lands, and the traveler who journeys and returns is liker one who ascends. The gods were in one sense psychic and not being, archetype and not eidos, subject and not object, collective unconscious and not God. The limitations of phenomenology set by Jung for scientific psychology prevent his science from crossing over to a clearer distinction between the “self” or true self and God, the imago Dei from its original.

Isaac Newton, Commentary on Daniel and the Apocalypse, pp…

Geoffrey of Monmouth, History of the Kings of Britain, IV.20; Bede, I.4.

Reply to “Dover Beach” on WordPress: Why Do We “hate” Putin?

We learned that Putin was lying and preparing everything he did toward the US to serve his plan for expansion, as is explicit in Dugin. Getting Trump elected in exchange for weakening the Magnitsky sanctions and NATO, and that election fraud for which Trump was impeached, and the attempted insurrection, the disregard for elections and opinion as malleable to Putin’s interests- he is a tyrant. The question for you is: Is tyranny good? Is it necessary?
The Magnitsky sanctions were upheld in the US Senate 98-2. I do not know what clearer point could crack through the assumption that a Hitler would not use fake news while accusing others of fake news. Some will fall for it.

Gulagging 1.6 million Ukrainians- supposedly fellow “Russians,” is a good start. One cannot expect brown and yellow people to fare better under Russofascism-and these are fellow Christians. We have tried to tell the communists, too, that he is no longer communist. I’m just glad YOU are not subject to fake news! WE, who do not listen to Fox news and the official Russian media, but 27 free sources that cohere, are the ones in danger of being deceived! But “hate” is of course not the right word, nor is fear.

I received a friendly threat from ole Vlad- apparently through a mediary. its published on WordPress. I consider such things confirmation. He is a gangster with strap on nukes- but we suspect his followers truly honor gangsters, if they expand Russia, regardless.

The Four Part Indication

Often when discussing with Atheists the reason that it is clear that God must be, though we do not know what God is, I will tell them that there is a four part “demonstration,” or rather indication, that something of the sort must be so, and is. I tell them that they do not have the patience for even this, and so might return to the traditional “proofs.” Proofs and demonstration are an odd way of speaking in this matter, since as we think from Aristotle we have learned that first principles are not demonstrated, as though they were a conclusion drawn from other premises, but are rather “seen.” This, then, is an ascending argument showing that it cannot be thought either that modern science has looked everywhere and refuted the existence of “gods,” nor that God is not.

Beginning from artificial beings: My chair is made of wood. Smash the chair. I still have all the wood. But no chair. The question is: What is the shape of the chair made of?

The shape of course has more to do with it being a chair than does the wood. Language gets a-hold of a class characteristic, of a kind of furniture as are tables and lamps. It is odd that the form of things is less durable than the “matter,” while the production of chairs can be repeated endlessly using the same form, but different matter. What makes it a chair is also related to geometry, the perpendicular, and the fact of weight and gravity. And we are mostly all familiar with the account from the physics of Aristotle regarding the 4 causes. The purpose of course guides the form, and a four legged chair must be better than a three legged stool for various purposes. But this, while so for artificial things made by man, does not seem at all so for the shape of rocks or even rivers and horizons and clouds. The shapes of these seem more accidental.

Purpose and the distinct form of objects beyond the accidental seem to enter, it our ontic presentation rising from the origins, only with the advent of Life. Life is very strange, and it it is difficult to say what is the difference between living and non-living matter. But with life, we get a sharp distinction between subject and object, and the subordination of part to whole. Purpose also enters nature here, as ferns seek sunlight, and reproducing beings seek to continue. Solid, liquid and gas (earth, air and water) are mixed with fire (energy) to produce an ongoing reaction similar to an internal combustion engine- and though these cars imitate living beings as do all artifacts, and even here imitate the generation of power and motion of the animals, it is also clear that these lack purposes or their own, and are not living beings. This though they can have something like a “health,” as the mechanic knows, and there is an art of tending this allegorical “health” of the auto- if one’s purpose is to drive and not to junk it.

It is with animate life that self motion enters into our ascent. Plants would find a great advantage in being able to move themselves into the sunlight, though nature has yet to produce this variation. Very few plants can move at all- the Venus fly trap, and a few others. The generation of moss is very interesting, as these have a stage where the spore is able to swim to a place where the plant then roots. Slime molds- which can apparently crawl up telephone poles- are another window into the very revealing roots of self motion in nature. The amoeba is another such window. Assuming the subordination of part and whole which entered nature with the plants, self motion doers not violate the “laws of thermodynamics,” when, say, our dog suddenly gets up and brings us the ball to play- though for every action there must be an equal and opposite reaction,” etc. Self motion is based upon contraction and then extension of a part out from the whole.

Purpose in nature has been rejected, of course, with the Lamarkian theory of the origins of the species in nature, in favor of accidental variation and changing kinds. We note that our “science,” though, simply assumes the kinds, then reasons about material and efficient causes regarding these, without attempting to understand, say, what make the ball Galileo rolls one thing, when he is demonstrating that objects fall at the same rate regardless of their weight (32’/sc/sc, accelerating). Our science similarly assumes the demarcation of biology and physics, with living and non-living matter, without being able to say what the difference is, and we see that Life would have to be considered a fifth being, not explainable in therms of earth, air water and fire, any more than the difference between a tree and the rest of the cosmos, or that of part and whole within a cell, is going to be explainable in terms of causes efficient and material. Hence, we cannot make life- rather, it comes only from the original spark, all living things on earth apparently having descended literally from a single source, so that all life is literally “akin.”

We say this: As there is a “ground” of the shape of the chair in the eternal truths of geometry, “within” which the chair occurs- for the truth of the Pythagorean theorem looks like it has not come to be to pass away, but is true always and of every triangle, whether it is ever even drawn- AS there is such an eternal ground in geometry for every artificial being, so there is a ground in the intelligible for life and self motion. Hierarchies of part and whole were always possible, as is known for a certainty, since these have come to be, and life itself was always possible in the nature of things, even if judging empirically from the view of what we say about 13 Billion years ago. Was the Pythagorean theorem true in “40 Billion B.C.?” But we say it is the same eternal ground that is revealed by the manifestation of life as that revealed by planets and crystals, configurations of molecules and rivers, and the triangle known to exist between the centers of any three objects. Hence God too is called “The living One,” and “cause of life,” eternal and the cause of the intelligibility of things. To say this cause of life is itself “alive” is strange, though it must be that and more, as the ground is geometrical, without a single mistake, though it is this and more. The ground is “one,” yet the forms themselves even of living things rise and fall and change, something as the glass is one on which the moisture freezes fractally to form the shapes that look like leaves.

Life, self motion, and then there is man. As there is an eternal ground of self motion and life and artificial objects, so we say there is an eternal ground of man, and as life is different from the non-living, and self-motion from merely vegetating, so man is dimension-ally different from the animal upon which human life has supervened, much as motion has supervened upon the plant and life itself upon the matter and energy it must be said to use (-for clearly the matter has no purpose in using us!). This we say again occurs without violating any of the supposed laws of physics or biology by which one might think hierarchy and purpose impossible- for here it is, revealing too that this was always possible in being. Wonder, reason, language, “conscience,” music, love, compassion, justice, all enter uniquely with the human, as we note, it is only humans who purse science, literature, etc.

Our psychiatry attempts to reduce the human dimension to the non-human. It is not that they get hold of absolutely nothing by this, but it is rather as trying to understand a sphere from its shadow in 2 dimensions, which will likely appear in the shape of a football. When viewed from within the two dimensional plane, this may also appear as a single line.

What the human soul reveals about being is dimension-ally more than what life reveals about the intelligible ground of being. We are each said to be “persons,” with our own names, and family names too imitate the kinds of beings, genetically same and different, as all things are both the same and different. So too, as we say He is the Living One, so we also say He is a person, or that our being persons is one way in which the soul or man is said to be an “image of God.” He has said to Moses: “I am.” But this saying- like the use of the word for being as a noun- is found independently in both the Greek and Hebrew writings (Plato, Republic 501b-c, etc). In both it is the cause of the laws. That two directions should arrive at the same is the confirmation of coherence- not certain knowledge, such as that hypothetical knowledge of what must follow. In the allegory of the cave, the one ascending turns from the images seen in water to the beings, and then from man and the other things, turns to see the Most High reflected. One allegory given in the divided line (Republic, Book VI) is that the Good is to the intellect as the sun is to the eye- with rays from a single source casting its light on the visible things. Socrates turned from the attempt to study nature directly, as done by the natural philosophers, and as we say is done erroneously by both those who talk of “Being” and those who talk of attributes based upon assumptions. Socrates turns to the what is questions of the human things, through man ascending to the highest principles. We say the imago Dei is even the true offspring, of which the “child of the good” is said to be the “fraudulent offspring.” That the Good is “beyond being” is the famous highest Socratic or Platonic formulation, not as personal as the Thinking Thought of Aristotle, but perhaps beyond the difference between the “personal” and “impersonal.”

That “Nous” or intellect is begotten in man or of man is also common between the New Testament and Socratic philosophy. It is this we say is an image of God, and from this one can see that the Christ is, or may just, be possible. What amazes us is that his words- love your enemies, etc. are unique, simple high true, and indeed the bread of life, things one gets the impression Socrates was too moderate or did not have the authority to teach. This again is a point of coherence. And again, we say that knowledge of the sort involved in wisdom is in the soul of each, as if from prior to our mortal origins. As the wing implies that there is earth and sky- evolving by chance in 3 or 5 different places in natural history- though the wheel, never, so we say God has formed, by the nature of things, as by his very hands, the capacities of the human soul that reveal by ascent the truth of the things of heaven. Science has no more explanation, let alone refutation, of these indications, nor can it even be consistently thought that nothing beyond the intelligible is Most High.

Jesus and the Geresene Demoniac

Texts, Luke 8: 22-; Matthew 8: 23-34

Benjamin Rush is said to be the first to turn American psychiatry from the understanding of madness as caused by the possession by demons and the attempt at a scientific account in terms of natural causes. [note 1]. It had barely been a century and a half since the trial of witches in Salem. Our joke on this, as a reader of the New Testament, is that Jesus had, though a better cure rate than Rush, or anyone else in modern psychiatry. But that humans are not able to judge and cast out spirits with any reliability does not mean that Jesus did not or could not, and we can in this inquiry try to see what was intended by the old understanding of certain kinds of madness as demonic possession.

Jesus cured this malady in addition to the bodily infirmities as lameness, blindness, leprosy and such, and is reported to have healed demon possessed persons on various occasions. His trip across the sea of Galilee to Geresenes, near the Decapolics, is apparently undertaken toward this end, as it is his destination. On the way, during a storm, the apostles who will witness the event are caught in a storm, and Jesus is wakened to rebuke the winds and waves. On a later Journey Jesus walks out to the boat in a storm, and calls Peter to walk with him on the water (Matthew 14:22-33). “Who then is this, that he commands wind and water and they obey him” (Luke 8:25). The authority over even the elements is related to or concomitant with the authority over spirits about to be demonstrated.

Jesus healed demon possession on various occasions, and Mary Magdalene is said to have been left by 7 demons Lk 8:2. The Geresene demoniac, like the one at Capernaum, (Luke 4:33-37) recognizes Jesus, saying:

Ah, what have you to do with us, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know who you are, the holy one of God.

This recognition of the Christ by the demons occurs on many occasions (Lk. 4: 41). At Geresenes, The man had been bound, but had broken all attempts to chain him, and had gone to live naked among the tombs. Jesus asks the demon, “What is your name.” He is told it is “Legion, for we are many.” We would call this a certain kind of multiple personality disorder, though it is not clear that these originate in the personality of the person afflicted.” Strangely, the demons plead with Jesus not to send them into the abyss, or out of the country (Mt.), and Jesus sends them into a herd of pigs nearby, who then run into the sea there and are drowned.

The authority over wind and sea has cross references, and is related to what in philosophy is called the problem of teleology, or of reconciling purpose with elemental nature. Shakespeare’s Prospero has such powers in a limited range within the theater, and Xenophon’s Socrates wonders if this is the goal of the natural philosophers, to use the knowledge of nature to govern wind and sea. It is by the name, through the spirit, and given to the Apostles along with the ability to heal.

When Jesus asks, “What is your name,” the question addresses the person displaced in the possession. The question aims to call the person back to himself. The answer he gets is that his name is “Legion, for we are many.”

It is sometimes not clear whether possession is a synonym for madnesses or compulsions, as though “he has a demon” were obvious, and the only way to say that one is mad.

Jesus cures the demoniac, but declines that he should come follow Jesus. This may correspond to the difference between restoring the ability to run, done by the doctor for a broken leg, and the training of an athlete to run well. In Sybil, Dr. Wilbur restores the subject to herself and her “normal” life, setting her back on the sidewalk, heading toward her college classes and her cultivation.

This ability to cast out demons is given by Jesus to the Apostles. It is by the name of Jesus that they flee or are cast out (Luke 10: 17-20). In connection with the rule of wind and waves, the “spirit world” is likened to the sea. “Name” in this sense is fairly called mysterious, but it is related to the previous sense. In relation to psychiatry, this shows what the art of the healing of the soul would be, and shows too that we lack faith, as we cannot do this whenever we want- it is by a Grace or by the Holy Spirit, which goes where it wills, not where we will. Human art then, the very meaning of “Psychiatry,” will be an art of doing what can be done given that we lack such knowledge and Spirit. The humans at Salem assumed for themselves the ability to recognize possession and treat the problem in the community through the courts, and were mistaken, regardless of whether Jesus did indeed heal the demoniac and many other instances.

In Mark (9:14-29), one brought had something similar epilepsy, with self destructive seizures from birth, where the demon would try to throw him into fire and such. Here the apostles ask Jesus why they could not drive out the demon. He answers that this kind can only be driven out by prayer.

The miracles generally in the New Testament are healings and resurrections. While skeptics may say these are “natural” events with unknown causes, that they are delusions or frauds is unlikely. While the efficient cause is the focus of skeptics, we note that nature is the guide in each case, with the natural health guiding what occurs by unknown means. The distinction between black and white magic- that the black magic does not fulfill but distorts the natures, turning princes into toads for example, this pertains. The miracles of Jesus are all symbols and the fulfillment of natures. Each is also an analogy- the healing of the lame or blind, and effects the soul and body alike toward a natural health.

On p. 140 of his text on psychiatry, Rush himself refers to this ability of Jesus to heal, and his giving the ability to the Apostles- as part of what ought be told those in madness who imagine they have powers of prophecy.

[In progress]

The madness of Nebuchadnezzer in the 4th chapter of Daniel, is similar in his reduction to the condition “near to beast,” eating grass and growing hair and claws, but is not said to be a multiple personality disorder, as is the Legion, nor is it called a possession by demons.

Note 1 Penn Medicine. The History of Pennsylvania Hospital.

Rush credits modern medical science with expelling such practices as de-tonguing those who blaspheme or say mad things. He is rather a great proponent of bloodletting and various bizarre but supposedly more scientific methods. To both are contrasted the healing of Jesus.